Types of adverbs


Read More:Case


আমরা জানি যে, Adverb, Noun এবং Pronoun ছাড়া Verb, Adjective অথবা অন্য কোন Adverb এমনকি কোন Phrase বা Sentence কে Modify করে। এটি কখন? (When?), কোথায়? (Where?), কীভাবে? (How?), কী উপায়ে? (In what way?) এবং কী পরিমাণে? (To what extent?) প্রভৃতি প্রশ্নের উত্তর দেয়। যেমন –

Rita sings sweetly. (Modifying Verb – sings)
She is very kind. (Modifying Adjective -kind)
Rita sings very sweetly. (Modifying Adverb – sweetly)
The horse runs swiftly (Modifying Verb – runs)
During summer, the sun shone brightly over our head. (Modifying Preposition – over)
The whistle blew just after I had entered into the train. (Modifying Conjunction – after)
This was a very interesting film. (Modifying Participle – interesting)
Certainly I will go. (Modifying Sentence – I will go)
We always go to the beach on the weekends. (Modifying Verb – where and when do we go?)

Rita sings sweetly. রীতা মিস্টি করে গান গায়।        There is no cloud in the sky. আকাশে কোনো মেঘ নেই।
Mita reads well. মীতা ভালো পড়ে।                       I shall certainly do the work. আমি নিশ্চই কাজটা করব।
He comes here daily. সে রোজ এখানে আসে।       He seldom writes. সে খুব কমই লেখে।
Go and sit there. ওখানে যাও এবং বোসো।             How many fingers have you? তোমার ক’টি আঙ্গুল আছে।
Surely India will win. ভারত নিশ্চিত জিতবে।        How nice the scene is! দৃশ্যটি কী সুন্দর!
He is too simple. সে বড্ড সরল।                         He often meets me. সে প্রায়ই আমার সঙ্গে দেখা করে।

লক্ষ্য কর উপরের Underline করা শব্দগুচ্ছ Noun ও Pronoun ছাড়া কোনো না কোনো Parts of Speech বা Sentence কে Modify করছে।  * An adverb qualifies anything except a noun or a pronoun. – J.C.Nesfield.

æADVERBIALS:  যে সব Word বা Words, Adverb –এর কাজ করে, তাকে আমরা Adverbial বলি। Adverbial  সাধারণত Noun যা Time বা Place –কে নির্দেশ করে কিন্তু Adverbial –এর পূর্বে একটি Preposition ব্যবহার করতে হবে । যেমন –
Mother cooks in the kitchen.                   Where does mother cook?                       Ans: – in the kitchen.
He gets up in the morning.                       My brother caught the fish with a net. They work in the garden.
এখানে in the kitchen, with a net, in the morning –এই phrase গুলি হল Adverbial.
Adverbs of Frequency (সংখ্যাসূচক)EXAMPLEUSE IN SENTENCE
কাজটি কত ঘন ঘন হয় তা দেখায়।
It shows how often the action is done. এই Adverb গুলি How often (কতবার) প্রশ্নের উত্তর দেয়। Once/twice/thrice –সংখ্যাসূচক, একবার, দুইবার, তিনবার।
Seldom –মাঝে মাঝে, often –প্রায়ই, frequently –ঘনঘন, again –আবার, always –সবসময়। sometimes, never, ever, normally, rarely, hardly, scarcely, secondly, thirdly, twice, thrice etc.John often goes to Church. Jenny seldom comes here. They never tried to do their best. They come here twice a month. He always tried to do his best. Often he comes late.
Adverb of Time (সময়সূচক)EXAMPLEUSE IN SENTENCE
কাজটি কখন বা কতক্ষণ ধরে হয় তা দেখায়। It shows when and how long the action is done. এই Adverb গুলি When (কখন) প্রশ্নের উত্তর দেয়।Before, after, now, then, ago, soon, late, lately, daily, often, already, never, ago, once, since, today, yesterday, early, since, when, immediately etc.He has come here today.                        
Rahul never does so. They come here daily. I have seen him before. I have already done it. Do it immediately.
Will they meet us tomorrow ?
Adverbs of Place (স্থানসূচক)EXAMPLEUSE IN SENTENCE
কাজটি কোথায় হয় তা দেখায়। It shows where the action is done. এই Adverb গুলি Where প্রশ্নের উত্তর দেয়।Here, there, in, out, up, down, within, everywhere, anywhere, backward, below, inside, far, near, above,
no where etc.
Go there. Come in. john has gone out. Our School is near our house. Where are they going? He is in abord. We went there.
Adverbs of Manner
(রীতি পদ্ধতিবাচক)
কাজটি কীভাবে হয়েছে তা দেখায়। It shows how or in what manner the action is done. এই Adverb গুলি How প্রশ্নের উত্তর দেয়। Adj+ly যুক্ত হয়ে এই Adverb গুলি মূলত গঠিত হয়।Well, aloud , hard, soundly, slowly,  sweetly, wisely, quickly, quietly, loudly, easily, bravely, badly, happily, carefully, sadly, boldly, fluently, gently, kindly, nicely, so, thus, how etc.The boy is crying loudly. Jenny sings sweetly. He behaves badly. They speak English fluently. We played well. The boy reads aloud. John writes clearly. He teaches us carefully and playfully. 
Adverb of Affirmation and Negative (স্বীকারসূচক/অস্বীকারসূচক)EXAMPLEUSE IN SENTENCE
কাজটি হ্যাঁ-সূচক অথবা না-সূচক তা দেখায়। It shows affirmation or negation of an action. একজনের প্রশ্নের Reaction দেয়।No, not, yeah, yes, surely, certainly, truly, really, at all, not at all, probably, possibly, perhaps, indeed, really etc.Yes, I will do this. No, she is not coming. I have not seen him. We will certainly go there. Surely, they are wrong.
Adverb of Effect or Cause (কারণ ও ফলসূচক) / Adverb of ReasonEXAMPLEUSE IN SENTENCE
কাজটি কেন করা হল তা বলে দেয়। It shows why the action is done. এই Adverb গুলির ‘For what?’ (যে কারণে) প্রশ্নের উত্তর দেয়।Consequently, accordingly, hence, therefore, why, so, likewise, as, yet, become etcIt is getting dark therefore we should return. It was raining so we did not go out.
Adverb of Quantity/DegreeEXAMPLEUSE IN SENTENCE
কাজটি কতখানি বা কতদূর হয়েছে তা দেখায়। It shows ‘how much’ or ‘to what extent’ the work is done. এই Adverb গুলি ‘How much?’ প্রশ্নের উত্তর দেয়।Partly, wholly, little, a little, too, little, much, less, fully, almost, very much, totally, more, quite very, half, extremely etc.He wants a little rest. It is quite clear. We are fully prepared. It was partly done.
কাজটির ক্রম প্রকাশ করে। It shows the order in which the action is done. ‘How many?/How often?’ প্রশ্নের উত্তর দেয়।First, second, third, last, lastly, finally, initially, secondly, thirdly etc.Who comes first? Finally, India signed the deal. Initially, we opposed the bill of CAB.

* Interrogative Adverb:- যে Adverb গুলি প্রশ্ন জিজ্ঞাসা করতে প্রয়োগ করা হয়, তাকে Interrogative Adverb বলে।

Interrogative AdverbsExamplesUse in Sentences
TIME (সময়)When (কখন) how long (কতক্ষণ)When does he go? How long are you waiting?
PLACE (স্থান)Where (কোথায়), whence (কোথাথেকে)Where do you live? Whence has he come?
REASON (কারণ)Why (কেন), wherefore (কীকারণে)Why are you so late? Wherefore is John absent?
MANNER/CONDITON (পদ্ধতি/অবস্থা)How (কীভাবে), How (কেমন/কীরকম)How did he do this? How are you today?
How you feel now?
NUMBER (সংখ্যা)How many (কতগুলি),
How often (কতবার)
How many pens do you have?
How often do you visit here?
QUANTITY (পরিমাণ)How much (কতটুকু),
How little (কতসামান্য)
How much do you want?
How little water do you drink?
DEGREE (কী মাত্রায়)How high (কতউঁচু),
How deep (কতগভীর)
How high is the mountain?
How deep is the see?

Conjunctive Adverb/Adverbial Conjunction : যে Adverb দুটি Clause কে যুক্ত করতে ব্যবহৃত হয়, তাকে Conjunctive Adverb বলে l Noun Clause এ Antecedent ছাড়ায় যে Linker (when/where) অন্য Clause কে modify করে ও সংযুক্ত করে Complex Sentence গঠন করে, সেই Linker গুলি হল Conjunctive Adverb.

Example: I know when the train will come. Can you tell me where he lives?

Prepositional Adverb: যখন কোনো Noun বা Adjective এর পূর্বে Preposition যুক্ত হয়ে, Adverb এর মতো কাজ করে তখন তাকে Prepositional Adverb বলে l Example: a + sleep = asleep. a + way = away. a + shore = ashore. be + sides = besides. in + deed = indeed. in + side = inside.  I felt asleep. He is inside the room.

Genitive Adverb: যে Adverb গুলি Possessive Noun থেকে গঠিত হয় তাকে Genitive Adverb বলে l যেমন – Once = of one time. Thrice = of three times. Always =  of all ways. Towards, hence, thence, amidst, amongst, midst প্রভৃতি l Example: Once upon a time there lived a king. Always speek the truth.

Introductory Adverb: কোনো Sentence কে শুরু করার জন্য যখন here বা there প্রয়োগ করা হয় তখন তাকে Introductory Adverb বলা হয় l Example: There lived a wise man. Here is your pen.

Compound Adverb: এটি একাধিক শব্দ যুক্ত হয়ে Compound Adverb গঠিত হয়l যেমন – Somehow (some + how), something (some + thing), sometimes, somewhere, otherwise, today, yesterday, nevertheless, therefore etc.

Sentence Adverb: Adverb যখন সম্পূর্ণ Sentence কে Modify করে তখন তাকে Sentence Adverb বলে l

যেমন – so, therefore, now, then, yet, however, otherwise, perhaps, consequently, briefly, apparently, fortunately, basically, normally, hopefully, surely, truly. Example: Perhaps he is tired. Fortunately we were saved.

Adverb – এর কিছু Rule

Rule 1:সাধারণত Adjective –এর পর ‘ly’ যুক্ত করে Adverb গঠিত হয়। যেমন –

bad + ly = badly.  Kind + ly = kindly.            Wise + ly = wisely.           Slow + ly = slowly.

Rule 2: যদি কোন word, verb –কে modify করে তাহলে ঐ word টিকে Adverb –এ form করে use করতে হবে।

Example: He speaks English fluently.         The sun shines brightly.   He walks slowly.

Rule 3: Adjective এর শেষে ‘Consonant + y’ থাকলে, ‘y’ কে তুলে ‘i+ly’ যুক্ত করে Adverb করতে হয় l যেমন – happy – happily, read – readily, hardy – hardily, heavy – heavily, gay – gaily, noisy – noisily.

Rule 4: Adjective এর শেষে ‘le’ থাকলে ‘e’ কে তুলে ‘ly’ যুক্ত করে Adverb করতে হয় l

যেমন – double – doubly, terrible – terribly, horrible –  horribly, single – singly.

Rule 5: কতগুলি Word একই form বা রূপ Adjective ও Adverb উভয় রূপে ব্যবহৃত হয় l যেমন – low, long, high, hard, fast, quick, early, late, near, next, best, much, enough, better, back, half, loud, close, daily, free, like, right, wrong, most, clear, clean, just, daily, weekly, yearly, quarterly etc.

Adjectives: (describing noun or noun equivalent)Adverb: (describing the verb)
Her voice was low. They do hard work. I am an early riser. God is just. It was late night. Use clean dress.The plan flew low over the trees. They works hard. I rise early. The train just left. I arrived late. We want to play the game clean.

* মনে রাখতে হবে, ‘ly’ যুক্ত Adjective শুধুই Adjective রূপে ব্যবহৃত হয় এবং এদের Adverb হয় না l যেমন – Costly, deadly, ugly, likely, kingly, lovely, silly, scholarly, cowardly, beastly, princely, womanly, leisurely.

Rule 6: শুধুমাত্র দুইটি Auxiliary Verb যেমন – Have to –এবং used to এর পূর্বে Adverb বসে।

Example: I often used to smoke. He often visits us.

Rule 7: Hardly, barely, seldom, scarcely, never, no sooner, not once, not only, not until, never again, rarely, only after প্রভৃতি Adverb গুলোর মধ্যে ‘না’ কথাটি নিহিত থাকে তাই এগুলো কোন বাক্যের সাথে যুক্ত থাকলে, সেই বাক্যে কখনো no, not বা never বসবে না। Example: I could hardly solve this problem. He seldom goes there.

Rule 8: Only সবসময় যার পাশে থাকে তাকেই modify করে। আর একারণে only কে use করার বেলায় সতর্কতা অবলম্বন করতে হবে । কারণ অবস্থানভেদে only বিভিন্ন অর্থ প্রদান করে।

Example:            Only Raj was accused of lying. (Means that no one else was accused).

                        Raj was only accused of lying. (He was accused but not convicted).

                        Raj was accused of lying only. (He was not accused of any thing else).

Rule 9:কিছু Adverbs (always, never, often, rarely, usually, almost, already, generally, nearly, hardly, just, quit, barely, scarcely etc.) Subject –এবং verb –এর মাঝখানে বা শেষে বসে। কিন্তু যদি Auxiliary verb থাকে, তবে Auxiliary verb –এবং মূল verb –এর মাঝখানে Adverb বসে।

Example:            I seldom meet him.                     He did it carefully. / He  carefully did it.

                        He has just gone there.              She is carefully doing this work.

Rule 10: Negative অর্থ প্রকাশক not once, not only, not until, never, never again, only after, only rarely, very seldom –ইত্যাদি Adverb গুলোও Auxiliary Verb কে সঙ্গে করে নিয়ে আসে এবং এগুলি Subject –এর আগে বসে।

Example:            Never again will they stay in that hotel.

                        Rarely has an accident occurred.

                        No sooner had I entered the room than a thief went out.

Rule 11: Late মানে হলো দেরি আর Latelyমানে হলো সম্প্রতি।

Example:            I arrived there late.                   He has got married lately.

Rule 12:          Shortly মানে হলো তাড়াতাড়ি করা এবং in short মানে হলো সংক্ষেপ।

Example:            Come back shortly.                      Give me the substance in short.

Same word used as an adjective and as an adverb:-

Rahul lives on the far side of the road.FarFarWe have travelled far from home.
The children are playing in the near park.NearNearCome near and tell me.
Those are high mountains.HighHighThe boys climbed high to reach the peak.
Speak in a low voice.LowLowThe airoplane is flying very low.

EXERCISE: Read the passage carefully and underline the adverbs

Long time ago an old man lived in a small village. He was very poor and believed it was all because of his fate. He went to the nearby Canal to collect aquatic plants and fishes. He take great risks to do so. He aimed to sell his daily catch at the nearby market.The stories about his hard work spread far and near. The king and his young prince overheat his deeds. The young prince pleaded his father to help the poor man.The king was intelligent enough and makes a plan. He hurriedly put a bag of gold coins by the bridge. He hoped that the poor man would see the bag and its contents and take it with him.That morning, while collecting fuel wood the poor man hurt his left eye. He could hardly open the eye. Still, he went to work. Today he had nothing to sell in the market and thus he returned home. He could see nearly nothing and thus also failed to see the folded bag kept by the bridge.The poor man therefore remained poor as before. His fate did not help him. A few days later the young prince heard the poor man’s story of ill-luck. He understood that no power on the earth can help a man who is ill-fated. He felt that the strength of a man is the cause of his success.

A. Fill in the blanks with adverb from the list given below.

1. He takes tea _________. 2. Do it _________. 3. John walks _________. 4. You are ________ late. 5. Look ______.6. Go ________. 7. John works __________. 8. She speaks _________. 9. I drink _______ water. 10. ________ take you seat. 11. The boy did/the sum __________.12. The wind is blowing _________.13. The bird sings ___________.14. The children laughs _________.15. He eats his lunch __________.

List: Hard, much, kindly, everyday, always, quickly, at once, now, above, daily, quickly, gently, sweetly, silently, loudly.

B. Underline the right adverbs:

1. The soldiers fought now/very/bravely/kindly. 2. He will come here yesterday/ tomorrow/last night. 3. They are only/soon/realy happy. 4. Never/always/soon speaks the truth. 5. How are you now/well/there. 6. She is writing soon/today/correctly. 7. He is always/badly/kindly smart. 8. Come here/there. 9. Remove the table seldom/inside. 10. A barking dog always/seldom/never bites. 11. The sun shines strongly/brightly/nobly. 12. He rises beautifully/early/daily from his bed. 13. He spoke kindly/freely/fearlessly. 14. The old man is walking newly/swiftly/slowly. 15. He is taking often/continuously for ten minutes.

C. Pick out Adverbs from the following sentences and arrang tham in the below given chart.

1. He will come soon. 2. She sings sweetly. 3. John has just gone out. 4. She behaves well. 5. The work is on. 6. The doctor is in. 7. The train is late. 8. He seldom goes there. 9. She arrived last. 10. He sometimes write to me. 11. He caught fish with a net. 12. They work in the field. 13. She comes here daily. 14. He works very slow. 15. Go there. 16. He never lies. 17. The men is almost dead. 18. She writes clearly. 19. Now he is happy. 20. She stood second. 21. He speaks very fast. 22. Fortunately he is safe.

Read More:Interjection


Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *