What is a clause and examples?


A clause is a group of words that contain a subject and a finite verb. It is a part of a larger sentence.

Clause হল বড়ো বাক্যের একটি ছোটো অংশ। এটি Phrase –এর মতো শব্দগুচ্ছের সমষ্টি, কিন্তু এখানে একটি Subject ও একটি Finite Verb থাকে।

আমাদের School –এর Class –V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII এবং Office Room প্রভৃতি হল এক একটি স্বতন্ত্র কক্ষ যা একত্রে আমাদের School নামে পরিচিত। ঠিক তেমনি ছোটো ছোটো Clause এর দ্বারা একটি সুন্দর বাক্য গঠিত হয়। Clauses are of three types.

Depending on structure, sentences are classified into three parts.

Principal ClauseSub-ordinate Clause
এটি বাক্যের মধ্যে প্রধানরূপে বিবেচিত হয়। এটি স্বাধীন অর্থাৎ অন্য কোনো Clause –এর সহযোগিতা ছাড়াই অর্থ প্রকাশ করতে পারে। এটির উপর, Sub-ordinate Clause অর্থ প্রকাশের জন্য নির্ভরশীল।  তাই একে Independent Clause ও বলা হয়। The clause which is not dependent on any other clause is called principal or main clause. – J.C. Nesfield. যেমন – School –এর প্রধান শিক্ষক, College –এর Principal, পরিবারের কর্তা, স্বাধীনভাবে কোনো সিদ্ধান্ত নিতে পারেন। ঠিক তেমনি Principal Clause বাক্যের মধ্যে স্বাধীনভাবে ব্যবহৃত হয়। অর্থাৎ Sub-ordinate Clause কে বাদ দিলেও Principal Clause স্বাধীনভাবে বাক্যের অর্থ প্রকাশ করতে পারে।   I have a watch which is new. He is Mr. Roy  who teaches us English. ‘I have a watch’ এবং ‘He is Mr. Roy’ হল Principal Clause যা Sub-Ordinate Clause ছাড়াই অর্থ প্রকাশ করতে পারছে।যে Clause অর্থ প্রকাশের জন্য Principal Clause–এর উপর নির্ভরশীল, তাকে Sub-ordinate Clause বলে। এটি Dependent Clause নামেও পরিচিত। কারণ Principal Clause টিকে বাদ দিলে, Sub-ordinate Clause টি অর্থহীন হয়ে পড়ে।  Unlike a principal clause, a sub-ordinate clause doesn’t have any independent meaning. It can’t stand alone. যেমন: School –এর সহকারি শিক্ষকগণ, College –এর সহকারি অধ্যাপকগণ, পরিবারের মা-ভাই-বোন যথাক্রমে প্রধান শিক্ষক, Principal ও পরিবারের কর্তার ওপর কোনো সিদ্ধান্ত গ্রহণের জন্য নির্ভরশীল। ঠিক তেমনি Sub-Ordinate Clause অর্থ প্রকাশের জন্য Principal Clause –এর উপর নির্ভরশীল। (Sub-ordinate Clause –এর শুরুতে সাধারণত as, if, though, because, since, so that, till, unless, when, who, where, why, how, what, before, while প্রভৃতি linker ব্যবহৃত হয়, যা দেখে আমরা সহজে Sub-ordinate Clause কে চিনতে পারি।) He is John who has stolen my watch. Brother presented me a pen which is costly. ‘Who has stolen my watch’ এবং ‘Which is costly’ হল Sub-Ordinate Clause যা Principal Clause ছাড়া অর্থহীন।

She told us (The fact) that the train had arrived late. I will succeed because I am working hard. She took medicine so that she might recover. He can do this if he is allowed. He is an honest man though he is poor.

          উপরে দাগ দেওয়া Clause গুলি হল Sub-ordinate C;ause যা সম্পূর্ণ অর্থ প্রকাশের জন্য Principal Clause এর উপর নির্ভরশীল। কিন্তু যে Clause এ Underline দেওয়া নেই, তা হল Principal Clause যেগুলি Sub-ordinate Clause ছাড়াই অর্থ প্রকাশ করতে পারে।

Co-ordinate ClauseCompound sentence
যখন দুই বা ততোধিক একই জাতীয় Clause কোনো Co-ordinate Conjunction (and, but, or, so) প্রভৃতি দ্বারা যুক্ত হয়, তখন তাকে Co-ordinate Clause বলে। যেমন –একই পরিবারে ভাই বা বোন, স্বাধীন ও সমান মর্যাদার অধিকারী। ঠিক তেমনি Co-ordinate Clause গুলি স্বাধীনভাবে নিজের অর্থ প্রকাশ করতে পার। যেমন- I sent him a letter and he replied.   Do or die.     John is poor but honest. The door was open so he came in.একাধিক Principal Clause যখন and, but, or, so, yet প্রভৃতি Co-ordinate Conjunction দ্বারা যুক্ত থাকে, তখন তাকে Compound Sentence বলে। (A compound sentence consists of two or more principal clauses connected by co-ordinate conjunction). যেমন- Read well or you will fail.          John is brave but quarrelsome.    He is handsome and intelligent. ** To know more please visit the chapter “Conjunction”.

Simple Sentence

যে Sentence –এ একটি মাত্র Subject এবং একটি Finite Verb থাকে, তাকে Simple Sentence বলে। (A simple sentence consists of only one clause with  a single subject and predicate.)  যেমন-

John goes to school every day.     I went to Agra to see the Tajmahal.         Seeing the tiger, he ran away.

Complex sentence

যে Sentence –এ কেবলমাত্র একটি Principal Clause –এবং এক বা একাধিক Sub-ordinate Clause যুক্ত থাকে, তাকে Complex Sentence বলে। A complex sentence consists of a principal or main clause with one or more sub-ordinate clause.

যেমন – একটি school –এ একজনই Headmaster থাকেন, কিন্ত একাধিক Assistant Teacher থাকেন। ঠিক তেমনি Complex Sentence –এ কেবলমাত্র একটি Principal Clause থাকে, কিন্তু এক বা একাধিক Sub-ordinate Clause থাকে। Sub-ordinate Clause –এর সংখ্যা হবে, Finite verb –এর সংখ্যার সমানুপাতিক।

I know the boy who visited you yesterday. I live at Tungidighi that is famous for rice which is favourite to the Bengalies who live in West Bengal.  উপরের  উদাহরণে ‘I know the boy’ এবং  ‘I live at Tungidighi’ হল Principal Clause  এবং নিচে দাগ দেওয়া অংশগুলি হল Sub-ordinate Clause.

আমরা জানি Complex Sentence –এ একটিমাত্র Principal Clause ও এক বা একাধিক Sub-ordinate Clause/Dependent Clause থাকে। Sub-ordinate Clause তিন প্রকার । যেমন- Nominal Clause, Adverbial Clause & Relative Clause.

Principal Clause –এর সাথে এক বা একাধিক Nominal Clause বা Adverbial Clause অথবা Relative Clause যুক্ত হয়ে Complex Sentence গঠিত হয়ে থাকে। তবে যে ক’টি Finite Verb, থাকবে, সেই ক’টি Clause –এর সংখ্যা হবে। মূলকথা একটি Principal Clause –এবং তার সাথে এক বা একাধিক Sub-ordinate Clause যুক্ত থাকতে পারে।যেমন-

Adverbial Clause –এর সাহায্যে Complex Sentence –এর গঠন: এই Clause Adverb এর মতো কাজ করে।

An adverbial clause functions as an adverb. Adverbial Clause সাধারণত Adverb –এর মতোই কারণ, স্থান, শর্ত, সময়, বিপরীত, উদ্দেশ্য, তুলনা, কিরূপ প্রভৃতি নির্দেশ করে থাকে। Adverbial Clause গুলি নিম্নরূপ:

A) Adverbial Clause of Time (সময় বোঝাতে):– এই Clause নির্দেশ করে কাজটি কখন ঘটছে এবং এর linker গুলি হল – when, whenever, while, before, after, till, until, since, as, as soon as, as/so long as, nowthat প্রভৃতি।

The thief ran away when he saw the police.           Wait until I come.           He came after I had left.  The match began as soon as the rain was over. The train left before we reached the station.

B) Adverbial Clause of Place (জায়গা বোঝাতে):– এটি স্থান নির্দেশ করে, এই Clause বলে দেয় কোনো স্থানে কাজটি সম্পূর্ণ হয়েছে। এর linker গুলি হল – Where  –এবং Wherever.

Wait where you are.       Where there is smoke, there is fire.       Go wherever you like. Let him go where ever he wants. Wherever he went his dog followed him.

C) Adverbial Clause of Reason (কারণ বোঝাতে): – এটি কারণ নির্দেশ করে, এটি বলে দেয় কাজটি কেন ঘটেছে। এর linker গুলি হল –As, because, since, that, because of, on account of, owing to the fact প্রভৃতি। যেমন-

He cannot walk because he is weak.          As she is ill, she cannot attend the meeting.  Since you are ill, you need not  go there.  I am happy that India won the match.

D) Adverbial Clause of Condition or Supposition (শর্ত বোঝাতে):- এটি শর্ত নির্দেশ করে। এটি বলে দেয় কোন কোন শর্তে কাজটি হচ্ছে বা ঘটেছে বা ঘটবে। এর linker গুলি হল- if, unless, in case, whether, provided (that), supposing that. যেমন-

If you come, I shall go. I shall not go unless you come. I shall meet you in case I could manage some time. Unless we defeat them by five goals, we can’t enter the final. Supposing that elections are held now we have very little chance to win.

[** To know more about Conditional Clauses please visit the chapter “Conditional Sentences”. ]

E) Adverbial Clause of Concession or Contrast (বৈপরীত্য বোঝাতে): – এটি অপ্রত্যাশিত বা বিপরীত ঘটনা নির্দেশ করে। এক্ষেত্রে একটি ঘটনার পরিপ্রেক্ষিতে অন্য অপ্রত্যাশিত বা বিপরীত ঘটনা ঘটে। এর linker গুলিহল–Though, although, even if, while, as, no matter, assuming that, granting that. তবে কখনো কখনো Whoever, Whatever, whichever, however. যেমন-

Though he is poor, he is honest.    Although he tried his best, he failed.                   Even if John fails, he does not give up hope.  Whoever he may be, we do not believe his words.   Though he is sincere he is very slow. Even though he is the son of a butcher, he is a strict vegetarian. You cannot win however hard you may try.

F) Adverbial Clause of Result (ফলাফল বোঝাতে): – এটি ফলাফল নির্দেশ করে। এর linker গুলি হল – That, so-that, such-that প্রভৃতি। যেমন- What had he done that teacher punished him.         I am so tired that I cannot walk. He is such a cleaver man that he cannot be befooled. The rain was so heavy that roads were flooded.

G) Adverbial Clause of Purpose (উদ্দ্যেশ্য বোঝাতে):– এটি উদ্দ্যেশ্য বোঝানোর জন্য ব্যবহৃত হয়। এর linker গুলি হল- that, so-that, in order that, lest প্রভৃতি। যেমন- We eat so that we can live. We read that we may learn. John walks hard so that he may succeed. John entered his house silently lest he should wake up his parents.

H) Adverbial Clause of Manner (ধরণ বোঝাতে):- এটি নির্দেশ করে কাজটি কেমন ভাবে হচ্ছে বা হয়েছিল বা হবে। এর linker গুলি হল- as, as if, as though প্রভৃতি। যেমন- It happened as we expected. The man ran as if a tiger was chasing him. Go as you like. Do as you please. He talks as if he was the principal.

I) Adverbial Clause of Degree (তুলনা বোঝাতে):- তুলনা বোঝানোর জন্য এটি ব্যবহার করা হয়। এর linker গুলি হল – than, as -as, so –as. যেমন-

Jaminul  is older than Shyam.       She is not so tall as her sister. Samsad is as wise as you.

Common Errors: 1. That, in order that, so that-এরপর may/might বা shall/should ব্যবহৃত হয় কিন্ত can/could ব্যবহৃত হয় না।

He works hard that/so that/in order that he may win the prize.     I give you advice in order that nothing should be forgotten. He works hard so that he could pass the examination. (x)

2. Lest –এর পর সাধারণত should ব্যবহৃত হয়। কারণ Lest হল Negative expression তাই Lest এর পর not ব্যবহৃত হয় না।

John worked hard lest he should fail. John is afraid lest he should fail.        Mita is afraid lest she should not pass.(x)

Prefer to/Rather than:

The PointExample
Subject + Prefer + Noun/Pronoun/Gerund + to + other.I prefer him to her. She prefers work to rest. She prefers Kolkata to Delhi. I prefer walking to riding. He prefers watching football to playing it. She prefers dying to paying.
Subject + Prefer + infinitive to + rather than + other.I prefer to die rather than pay. He prefers to live rather than die.

1. Joining With Adverbial Clause (Complex Sentence)

Adverbial Clause –এর linker সাধারণত বাক্যের শুরুতে লিখতে হয় এবং প্রথম বাক্যের শেষে ‘কমা’ (,) দিয়ে পরের বাক্য বা বাক্যগুলি লিখতে হয়। তবে linker মাঝখানে ব্যবহার করলে ‘কমা’ দিতে হয় না।

Adverbial Clause এর প্রধান Linker গুলি হল When (যখন), As (যেহেতু),Though (যদিও), If (যদি)।

1. When: দুটি কাজ প্রায় একসাথে হবে, তার মধ্যে থেকে প্রথমে ঘটে যাওয়া কাজের পূর্বে When ব্যবহৃত হয়। ** Two actions take place at the same time.  ** Second action follows the first.

a. The police came to the spot. b.The terrorist fled away.When the police came to the spot, the terrorist fled away. Or, The terrorist fled away when the police came to the spot.
a. I was writing a letter. b. I heard a noise.         When I was writing a letter, I heard a noise. Or, I was writing a letter when I heard a noise.
a. It was morning. b. I was walking.I was walking when it was morning.
a. The sun set. b. She returned home.She returned home when the sun set.
a. The meeting was over. b. All the members went home.When the meeting was over, all the members went home. Or, All the members went home when the meeting was over.

2. AS (যেহেতু):-একটি বাক্যে কারণ এবং অন্যটিতে কারণ অনুসারে ফল দেওয়া থাকলে, কারণযুক্ত বাক্যের পূর্বে As ব্যবহৃত হয়।

** When the second action completes before the first is completed. ** to mean while or before.

a. John was ill. b. He could not attend the meeting.As John was ill, he could not attend the meeting. Or, John could not attend the meeting as he was ill.
a. The girl committed suicide. b. She could not pass the M.P.The girl committed suicide as she could not pass the M.P. Or, As the girl could not pas the M.P, she committed suicide.
a. I could not go to school. b. It was raining hard.As it was raining hard, I could not go to school.
a. The lady is weak. b. She can not walk.As the lady is weak, she can not walk.
a. The weather was stormy. b. I did not go out.As the weather was stormy, I did not go out.

3. THOUGH (যদিও):– একটি বাক্যে কারণ থাকবে এবং অন্যটিতে যদি কারণ অনুসারে ফল না হয়, তাহলে ব্যর্থ কারণের পূর্বে Though ব্যবহৃত হয়।

a. He studied hard. b. He failed.Though he studied hard, he failed. Or, He failed though he studied hard.
a. The silver tea pot was costly. b. Yet she bought it.She bought the silver tea-pot though it was costly.
a. The lady is rich. b. She is honest.Though the lady is rich, she is honest.
a. John is brilliant. b. Yet he fails to di it.Though John is brilliant, he fails to do it.
a. She enjoys sound health. b. She is very old.Though she is very old, she enjoys sound healthy.

4. IF (যদি): – একটি বাক্যে শর্ত দেওয়া থাকবে; অপরটিতে শর্তস্বরূপ কাজ হলে If ব্যবহৃত হয়। এক্ষেত্রে বাক্যের অর্থ বুঝো ‘do not’ ব্যবহার করতে হবে; আবার বাক্যের অর্থ ঠিক রাখার জন্য ‘do not’ কে তুলেও দিতে হতে পারে।

a. Read well. b.  You will pass.If you read well, you will pass. Or, You will pass if you read well.
a. Stop here. b. I will punish youIf you do not stop here, I will punish you.
a. Work hard. b. You will get success.If you work hard, you will get success.
a. Get 90 marks. b.Then you will get a prize.If you get 90 marks, you will get a prize.
a. You must hurry. b.You will miss the train.If you do not hurry, you will miss the train.
a. Do not smoke. b.You will die.If you smoke, you will die.

5. WHILE (যখন)/যেসময়/সময় ধরে):– এর ব্যবহার When –এর মতোই; তবে এর প্রয়োগ Continuing or during the course of time বেশি হয়। ** When one action takes place during the course of another. **

a. I wrote a letter. b.I was in hospital. c. We were watching T.V. the lights went off.While I was in hospital, I wrote a latter. Or, I wrote a letter while I was in hospital. While we were watching T.V, the light went off.
a. I was standing by the sea. b.The sun was looking splendid.While I was standing by the sea, the sun was looking splendid.
a. I was waiting at the bus stop. b. It was raining heavily.I was waiting at the bus stop while it was raining heavily.
a. The iron is red. b. Strike it now.Strike the iron while it is red.
a. The girl drowned. b. She was bathing.The girl drowned while she was bathing.

6. BECAUSE (কারণ/হেতু):– এটি সাধারণ As–এর মতোই ব্যবহৃত হয়। এটি কারণ নির্দেশ করার জন্য ব্যবহৃত হয়।

a. I could not attend my computer class. b. I was ill.I could not attend my computer class because I was ill.
a. His mother does not like him. b. He is dishonest.His mother does not like him because he is dishonest.
a. She was punished. b. She was found guilty.She was punished because she was found guilty.
a. He was late for school. b. He was rebuked.He was rebuked because he was late for school.

7. AS SOON AS (যেমাত্র):– এর ব্যবহার When –এর মতোই, তবে এর প্রয়োগ কাজটি খুব শীঘ্রই সম্পন্ন হলে করা হয়।

a. The tiger opened its mouth. b. The hunter ran away.As soon as the tiger opened its mouth, the hunter ran away.
a. She finished the work. b. She went out immediately.As soon as she finished the work, she went out immediately.
a. I saw a snake. b. I ran away.As soon as I saw a snake, I ran away.
a. We heard the news. b. We rushed to the hospital.As soon as we heard the news, we rushed to the hospital.

8. SO-THAT (এতই যে):- ‘too’ বা ‘very’ কে তুলে দিয়ে ‘so’ বসাতে হবে, তারপর Adjective এবং মাঝখানে that লিখে পরের বাক্যটিকে যুক্ত করতে হবে।

a. The boy was too short. b. He could not climb up the tree.The boy was so short that he could not climb up the tree.
a. He is very weak. b. He can not walk.He is so weak that he can not walk.
a. It is very dark. b. He can not see.It is so dark that he can not see.
a. John is very tired. b. He can not walk any further.John is so tired that he can not walk any further.

9. SUCH THAT (এমন যে) :- Sub + V + such + Adjective with Noun + that + পরের বাক্যটি

a. John is a very rich man. b. He can build a hospital.John is such a rich man that he can build a hospital.
a. It was a good movie. b. Many people watched it.It was such a good movie that many people watched it.
a. She has beautiful eyes. b. I can not take my eyes off her.She has such beautiful eyes that I can not take my eyes off her.
a. It was an amazing sight. b. We will never forget it.It was such an amazing sight that we will never forget it.

10. ALTHOUGH (যদিও):- এর ব্যবহার Though এর মতোই। এটি ব্যর্থ কারণের পূর্বে বসে।

a. He is rich. b. He is unhappy. Although he is rich, he is unhappy.
a. She did not come. b. I invited her. Although I invited her, she did not come.

11. UNLESS (যদিনা):– একটি ঘটনা না ঘটলে অপরটি ঘটবে না এমন শর্ত বোঝাতে Unless ব্যবহৃত হয়। যেমন-

a. Follow my advice. b. Otherwise I will not guide you.Unless you follow my advice, I will not guide you.
a. It must rain. b. Farmers will unhappy.Unless it rains, the farmers will be unhappy.
a. Work hard. b. You cannot succeed.You cannot succeed unless you work hard.

Till/until/unless – যে Clause – এর সঙ্গে যুক্ত থাকে তা Negative হয় না অর্থাৎ no/not যুক্ত থাকেনা।  Until কিছু সময়ের ক্ষেত্রে ও Unless চিরকালের ক্ষেত্রে ব্যবহৃত হয়।

a. I will wait here. b. He comes back.I will wait here until he comes back.
a. No one will love you. b. You love others.No one will love you unless you love others.
a. As long as you can keep the book. b. You like.You can keep the book as long as you like.
a. my feet get cold. b. I wear socks.My feet get cold unless I wear socks.
a. we must work hard. b. He will not pass.Unless we work hard, we will not pass.

12. WHENEVER (যখনই):

a. I want to go. b. The child begins to cry.Whenever I want to go ,the child begins to cry.

As far as /so far as:

a. It is lucky. b. I see it.As far as I see it is lucky.

13. AS IF/AS THOUGH (যেন/যদিও): – এর প্রথম অংশ Present Indefinite হলে, পরেরটি হবে Past Perfect.

a. He begins to cry. b. He was beaten.He begins to cry as if he was beaten.

He ran fast as if he were mad. He speaks as if he was my boss. It looks as if it might rain.

Even if/even though (এমন কি/যদিও): They were inside even if I forbade.

Provided/Provided that (এই শর্তে যে): I shall go provided he comes.             I shall help you provided you follow my advice.

That/in order that/so that (যাতে) : John studied hard that/ in order that/so that he passed the examination.

AS-AS: তুলনা করতে Positive বাক্যে ব্যবহৃত হয়। He is as brave as his brother.

SO-AS: তুলনা করতে Negative বাক্যে ব্যবহৃত হয়। He is not so brave as his brother.

2. Adjective Clause/Relative Clause (Complex Sentence)

An adjective clause functions as an adjective in a sentence. It qualifies a noun or pronoun. Relative Clause বা Adjective Clause –এর কাজ সাধারণত Adjective –এর মতোই। Relative Clause –এর সাহায্যে আমরা দুই বা ততোধিক বাক্য খুব সহজে যোগ করতে পারি। তাই এর linker গুলি সাধারণত যে Word টি (Place, Time, Name, Reason) কে নির্দেশ করে ঠিক তারপরেই ব্যবহৃত হয় এবং linker –এর সমর্থক শব্দটিকে তুলে দিতে হবে। -এই Clause –এর linker, Relative Pronouns (Who, Whom, Whose, Which, That) –এবং Relative Adverb (When, Where, How, Whence, Why) হয়ে থাকে।

Whoযে/যার/যিনি (মানুষ)Whichযেটি/যেগুলি (বস্তু)
Thatযেটি (বস্তু/প্রাণী)Whomযাকে/যাহাদেরকে (প্রাণী)
Whoseযার/যাদের (প্রাণী)Whereযেখানে (জায়গা)
Whenযখন (সময়)Whyযেকারণে (কারণ)
Howযেভাবে/যেমন ক’রে  

** Antecendent : – The noun or pronoun that an adjective clause qualifies is called its antecendent. Relative Clause –এর linker যে Word টিকে নির্দেশ বা বর্ণনা করে তাকে Antecedent বলে। Adjective Clauses immediately follow there antecendent. Relative Clause –এর linker গুলি Antecedent –এর পরে বসে। যেমন- I know the boy who came. The boy –হল Antecedent.

A) WHO: Who সর্বদাই কর্তা I (Subject) কে নির্দেশ করে। এটি Nominative Case অর্থাৎ ব্যক্তিবাচক Subject কে তুলে দিয়ে ব্যবহার করতে হয়।

a. I know John. b. He won the scholarship.I know John who won the scholarship.
a. John is a great man. b. He lives in Kolkata.John who lives in Kolkata is a great man./ John who is a great man lives in Kolkata.
a. Some students waste their time on mobile game. b. Keep close eyes to these students. Keep close eyes to those students who waste their time playing on mobile game.

B) WHOM: Whom ব্যক্তিবাচক Object (objective case) –এর ক্ষেত্রে ব্যবহার হয়। এক্ষেত্রে বাক্যমধ্যস্ত Object -him, her, them (John), me, us, you প্রভৃতি তুলে দিয়ে, Whom ব্যবহার করতে হয়।

a. I know John. b. I invited him to my birthday partyI know John whom I invited to my birthday party.
a. John met a man last night. b. He is a doctor.The man whom John met last night is a doctor.
a. He is a gentleman. b. You can trust him.He is a gentleman whom you can trust.


C) WHOSE: ব্যক্তিবাচক Possessive Adjective (his, her, their, my, our, your) –এর পরিবর্তে Whose বসে।

a. I know John. b. His brother is a good doctor.I know John whose brother is a good doctor.
a. The man is happy. b. His life is pure.The man whose life is pure is happy.
a. John is a good teacher. b. His house is a tutorial one.John is a good teacher whose house is a tutorial one.
a. I met a boy. b. His father was a soldier.I met a boy whose father was a soldier.

D) WHICH: এটি সাধারণত বস্তুবাচক (pen, book, dog, house, it, this) ব্যবহৃত হয়। তবে কখনো কখনো, ইতরপ্রাণী বা জন্ত বা জানোয়ার –এর ক্ষেত্রেও Which ব্যবহার হয়। [Which –এর পরিবর্তে That ও ব্যবহার হতে পারে।

a. This is the book. b. This book is written by Tagore.This is the book which is written by Tagore.
a. The grapes hung over the garden wall. b. The fox saw the grapes.The fox saw the grapes which hung over the garden wall.
a. I bought some mangoes. b. They are fresh.I bought some mangoes which are fresh.

E) THAT: That –এর ব্যবহার মানুষ, জন্তু, জানোয়ার ও বস্তু সকলের ক্ষেত্রে হয়ে থাকে। তাই এটি Who –এবং Which –এবং Whom –এর স্থানে ব্যবহৃত হতে পারে।

a. I know the boy. b. He stole my pen.I know the boy that (who) stole my pen.
I have read ‘Macbeth’ that (which) is written by Shakespeare.The man that (whom) we are looking for has come.

F) WHERE: কোনো স্থানবাচক পদ (there/here/somewhere) –এর পরিবর্তে Where ব্যবহৃত হয়।

a. This is the school. b. John taught us there.This is the school where John taught us.
a. You put it somewhere. b. Show me the place.Show me the place where you put it.
a. He works in a hospital. b. This is the hospital.This is the hospital where he works.

G) WHEN: কোনো সময়বাচক পদ –এর পর When ব্যবহৃত হয়।

a. He will come. b. I do not know the time.            I do not know when he will come.
a. Result will be published. b. Tell me the time.Tell me when the resut will be published.

H) HOW: কোনো পদ্ধতিবাচক পদের পর How ব্যবহৃত হয়।

a. The soap is made in a process. b. The H.M described it.The H.M described the process how the soap is made.
a. She solved the problem. b. Can you tell me the method?Can you tell the method how she solved the problem?

I) WHY: কোনো কারণবাচক পদের পরিবর্তে Why ব্যবহৃত হয়।

a. He is crying for something. b. Do you know the reason?Do you know the reason why he is crying?
a. She is sad. b. Nobody knows the reason.No body knows the reason why she is sad.
Relative Adverb : Where, When, Why, How প্রভৃতি হল  Relative Adverb যা sub-ordinate Clause এর পূর্বে বসে এবং Principal Clause এর Head Word (Adverb of Place/Time/Reason/Method) সম্পর্কে অতিরিক্ত তথ্য Relative Clause এর মাধ্যমে প্রদান করে
Whereস্থান সূচক Antecedent এর পর ব্যবহৃত হয়। Here, there এর পরিবর্তে অর্থাৎ in which place এর পরিবর্তে where ব্যবহার।  This is the hospital where I was born. It is Kulik forest where migratory birds visit.
Whenসময় (Time/Moment) সূচক Antecedent এর পর ব্যবহৃত হয়; at which time এর পরিবর্তে ব্যবহৃত হয়। I do not know when he will come. It was December when I met her.
Whyকারণ (Reason) সূচক Antecedent এর পর ব্যবহৃত হয়; For what reason এর পরিবর্তে ব্যবহৃত হয়।I do not know the reason why she failed. Do you know the reason why he is sad.
Howপদ্ধতি (Way/Method/Process) সূচক Antecedent এর পর ব্যবহৃত হয়। In which  way এর পরিবর্তে ব্যবহৃত হয়।I know how you can do this. Doctors advised how we could defeat corona.

3. NOMINAL CLAUSE (Complex Sentence)

A clause that works as a noun is called noun clause. It is a clause that takes the position of a noun (subject/object) in a sentence. Nominal Clause, Noun –এর কাজ করে। Nominal Clause, verb কে -এর Subject রূপে বা Object বা Complement রূপে ব্যবহৃত হয়। এই Clause –এর প্রধান linker ‘that’ তবে প্রয়োজন অনুসারে What/ who/how/whom/when প্রভৃতিও ব্যবহৃত হয়। Linker –এর প্রধানত Sub-ordinate Clause –এর পূর্বে ব্যবহৃত হয়। Example:- What you heard is not true. (Subject) I can’t make out what you say. (Object) The news that he went abroad is false. (Apposition to a Noun or Pronoun) Iasked him to report what he saw. (Object of an Infinitive) Hearing that she is in hospital, I went there. (An Object of a Participle)

                                                   NOMINAL CLAUSE AS SUBJECT:

A) প্রথমে (Linker + Sub-ordinate Clause) = Subject + Main Clause Verb + Rest.

a. Sachin is a great batsman. b. It is known to all.That Sachin is a great batsman is known to all.
a. John will return. b. The time is uncertain.When John will return is uncertain.
a. Man is mortal. b. It is absolutely correctThat man is mortal is absolutely correct.
a. Someone telephoned me . b. It is still a mystery.Who telephoned me is still a mystery.
a. The boy failed. b. The cause is not clear to us.Why the boy failed is not clear to us.
a. He will win the prize. b. It is certain.That he will win the prize is certain.

B) AS OBJECT: Sub+V+linker + (Sub-ordinate clause) = Object.

a. Money makes money. b. Grandfather says this.Grandfather says that money makes money.
a. It will rain. b. I hope it.I hope that it will rain.
a. Someone came here yesterday. b. I do not know him.I do not know who came here yesterday.
a. He requires something. b. Can you tell me that?Can you tell me what he requires?
a. I wanted to know his age. b. I asked the boy.I asked the boy how old he was.
a. He was innocent. b. He could prove that.He could prove that he was innocent.
a. Where do you live? b. Tell me. Tell me where you live?.
a. Macbeth” wrote someone. b. Can you tell me that?Can you tell me who wrote “Macbeth”?

C) AS COMPLEMENT: -এক্ষেত্রে Preposition + it/that কে তুলে দিতে হয় তারপর linker that + Sub-ordinate Clause. এটি Be-Verb এর Complement রূপে ব্যবহৃত হয়। Principal Clase + (that + Sub-ordinate Clause) = Object.

a. India lost the match. b. We were sorry for it.We were sorry that India lost the match.
a. She will be sorry. b. I am afraid of that.I am afraid that she will be sorry.

D) AS AN OBJECT TO A PREPOSITION:  Sub+V+Preposition+linker+Sub-ordinatecaluse.এক্ষেত্রে Preposition এর পর Sub-ordinate Clause প্রয়োগ করতে হয়।

a. You said something. b. There is no meaning in it.There is no meaning in what you said.
a. A man behaves. b. He is judged by it.A man is judged by how he behaves.
a. The wedding should take place. b. They quarrelled over the time.They quarrelled over when the wedding should take place.

E) As An Apposition to a Noun or Pronoun: প্রথমে Noun বা Pronoun তারপর that + Noun/Pronoun –এর Apposition + Verb + Rest:

a. You made a statement. b. John will not come. It is true.Your statement that John will not come is true.
a. Mira has become a minister. b. The news is not true.The news that Mira has become a minister is not true.

Difference between Noun and Adjective Clause :

Linker : Who, which, why, where, how, that প্রভৃতির দ্বারা Noun Clause ও Adjective Clause উভয়ই গঠিত হয়ে থাকে কিন্ত মনে রাখতে হবেl  Linker গুলি যদি Antecedent কে qualify করে তাহলে Relative Clause হবে অন্যথ্যায় Noun Clause হবে।

Noun Clause (Without Antecedent)Relative Clause (Linker After Antecedent)
Tell me when he will come.Tell me the time when he will come.
I know why John said so.We know the reason why John said so.
We know how they do it.We know the way how they do it.
I know who telephoned me.I know the man who telephoned me.
What he said came true.He said something that came true.
 I know whom you loveI know the girl whom you love.
I know whose pen is this.I know the person whose pen is this.

Who, Which, That, Whom, Whose হল Relative Pronoun, কিন্তু What ও Which কে প্রয়োগ করা হয় Relative Pronoun ও Relative Adjective উভয়রূপে। মনে রাখতে হবে, What এবং Which এর ঠিক পরেই যদি Noun থাকে, তাহলে তা Relative Adjective হবে এবং এক্ষেত্রে Antecedent থাকবে না, তাহলে এগুলিকে Compound Relative বলে গণ্য হবে। যেমন- I ate what mangoes I could. I don’t know which train I should take. আবার Where, When, Why এবং How হল Relative Adverb যার পূর্বে Antecedent থাকবেই, অন্যথায় তা Conjunction বলে গণ্য হবে।

Relative (Antecedent must)Conjunctive (Without Antecedent)
This is the reason why he failed. This is the time when the sun rises.This is why he failed. This is when the sun rises.

Simple Sentence

আমরা জানি যে, Simple Sentence –এ কেবলমাত্র একটি Subject ও একটি Finite Verb থাকে, তবে এখানে এক বা একাধিক Non-finite Verb থাকতে পারে। ** A simple sentence which has only one finite verb (expressed or understood) is called simple sentence. J.C. Nesfield. Simple Sentence –এর Joining –এর ক্ষেত্রে একটি Finite Verb ঠিক রেখে বিভিন্নভাবে বাকি Verb গুলিকে Non-finite Verb এ রূপান্তরিত করতে হয়। Infinite, Participle, Gerund, Verbal Noun, Noun in apposition প্রভৃতির সাহায্যে Finite Verb কে  Non-finite Verb এ রূপান্তরিত করে Simple Sentence গঠন  করা হয়।

Finite VerbNon-finite Verb
এটি বাক্যের অর্থ সমাপ্ত করতে পারে। একটি Simple Sentence এ কমপক্ষে একটি Finite Verb থাকবেই।এটি  বাক্যের অর্থ Finite Verb –এর সাহায্য ছাড়া সম্পন্ন করতে পারে না। Finite Verb বাদ দিলে এটি অর্থহীন হয়ে যায়। 
এর রূপ Subject –এর পরিবর্তনের সঙ্গে সঙ্গে হয়।এর রূপের Subject –এর পরিবর্তনের সহিত হয় না।
এটি Tense, Number, Person –এর পরিবর্তনের সহিত পরিবর্তিত হয়।এটি Tense, Number, Person, Gender –এর দ্বারা পরিবর্তিত হয় না।

যেমন – I play cricket. Jhon plays cricket. John played cricket. John will play cricket. [উপরের উদাহরণে ‘play’, ‘plays’, ‘played’, ‘will play’ Verb গুলি Finite কারণ এর রূপের পরিবর্তন Tense ও Subject অনুসারে পরিবর্তিত হচ্ছে কিন্তু নিচের উদাহরণে to play. হল Non finite verb. –  I like to play cricket.  John likes to play cricket.  John did not like to play cricket. Will John like to play cricket? কারণ ‘to play’ এর রূপের কোনো পরিবর্তন Tense ও Subject এর পরিবর্তনের সাথে হচ্ছে না।


Verb এর Base form বা Root form অথবা V1 হল Infinitive যার Subject ও Predicate থাকে না। ** An infinitive is a non finite verb which simply denotes (names) the action without denoting (naming) the subject or does. বাংলায় ক্রিয়ার সাথে ‘তে’ যুক্ত থাকলে V1 এর পূর্বে ‘to’ ব্যবহার করে Infinitive করা হয়। যেমন- যাইতে > to go. খাইতে > to eat. করতে > to do. পড়তে > to read. নাচতে > to dance. অনুরোধে > to request. ঘুরতে > to visit. ধরতে > to catch. ব্যবহারে > to use. কিনতে > to buy. Etc.

আমার মা রান্না করতে ভালোবাসে। > My mother loves to cook. অনুরূপভাবে, John visited Agra to enjoy the Taj Mahal. 

        Infinitive কে বাক্যের মধ্যে Noun, Adjective ও Adverb রূপে প্রয়োগ করা যায়। যেমন – To dance was her passion. (Noun) I like to read novels. (Noun) Give him an ornament to polish. (Adjective) He needs some volunteers to continue the programme. (Adjective) The officer returned to help. (Adverb) They will complete the mission to set an example. (Adverb qualifying an adjective)

Infinitive দুই প্রকার। যথা – 1. Infinitive to এবং 2. Bare Infinitive

Action Verb এর পূর্বে to (to+V1) যেমন-  to read, to go, to write, to walk etc.      like
Modal Verb  এবং Verb of senses (make, let, hear, watch, see etc.

A) Simple: Infinitive কে যখন Noun এর মত Subject বা Object রূপে প্রয়োগ করা হয় তখন তাকে Simple বা Noun Infinitive বলে।

Infinitive as SubjectInfinitive as Object
To find fault is easy. ভুল ধরা সহজ। To err is human. ভুল মানুষের ধর্ম।  To forgive is devine. ক্ষমা শ্রেষ্ঠ গুণ।  To steal is sin. চুরি করা পাপ। To walk is good for health. হাঁটাচলা করা স্বাস্থ্যের পক্ষে ভালো।They refuse to talk. – তারা কথা বলতে অস্বীকার করলেন। Sachin likes to play cricket. – শচীন ক্রিকেট খেলতে পছন্দ করে। Iwant to read English. – আমি ইংরেজি পড়তে চাই। He likes to walk. – সে হাঁটতে পচন্দ করে।
To give is to get. – প্রদান মানে-ই প্রাপ্তি।I like to hunt. – আমি শিকার করতে পছন্দ করি।
To see is to believe. –চোখে দেখলেই বিশ্বাস হয়।I know how to solve the problem. – আমি জানি সমস্যাটির সমাধান কেমন করে হয়।
To play game on mobile is foolish. – মুঠোফোনে খেলা করা মূর্খতা।He likes to watch action movies. – সে মারদাঙ্গা ছায়াছবি দেখতে পছন্দ করে।
To talk for health. স্বাস্থ্যের কথা বলতে গেলে।Do you like to speak English? তুমি ইংরেজি বলা পছন্দ কর?


Verb + to + infinitive টি Subject কে নির্দেশ করে।Verb + Object + to infinitive টি Object কে নির্দেশ করে।
I asked to see the book. – আমি বইটি দেখতে বলেছিলাম।I asked her to see the book. – তাকে আমি বইটি দেখতে বলেছিলাম।
We expect to do better. আমরা আশাকরি আরো ভালো করবো।We expect you to do better. আমরা আশাকরি তুমি আরও ভালো করবে। 
Do you go to the market? তুমি কি বাজারে যাও।Do you want one to go with you to the market. – তুমি কি চাও কেউ তোমার সাথে বাজারে যাক?

C. Gerundial Infinitive/Qualifying Infinitive: কোনো Infinitive যখন Adjective বা Adverb এর মতো Qualify করতে ব্যবহৃত হয়, তখন তাকে Gerundial Infinitive বলে। বাংলায় অসমাপিকা ক্রিয়া যেমন – দেখবার, খাওয়ার, দেওয়ার, শোনার, বলার প্রভৃতির জন্য যে Infinitive প্রয়োগ করা হয়, তাদেরকে Qualifying Infinitive বলে। যেমন – পান করার জল। – Water to drink. ভাড়া দেওয়ার জন্য বাড়ি। – A house to let. আমি খেলাটি উপভোগ করার জন্য গিয়েছিলাম। – I went to enjoy the game. সত্যি বলতে আমি খুব খুশি। – To tell you the truth, I am very happy. 

a) To qualify a Noun: এগুলি Noun কে Qualifying করতে ব্যবহৃত হয়।Give me something to drink. – আমাকে কিছু একটা পানীয় দাও। Give him a chair to sit. – তাঁকে বসার জন্য একটা চেয়ার দাও। It was a sight to see. – এটা ছিল একটা দেখার মতো দৃশ্য। This is a thing to admire. – এটি তারিফ করার মত একটা জিনিস। He has no time to gossip. – তার পরনিন্দা করার মতো সময় নেই।
b) To qualify a Verb like an Adverb: এগুলি Adverb এর মতো Verb কে Qualify করতে ব্যবহৃত হয়।I came to see you. – আমি তোমায় দেখতে এসেছিলাম। It is going to rain. – বৃষ্টি আসন্ন। We are going to play the match. – আমরা ম্যাচটি খেলতে যাচ্ছি।   The bus stops to pick up the passengers. যাত্রী তোলার জন্য বাসটি থামে। They went to bathe in the Ganges. – তাঁরা গঙ্গায় স্নান করতে গিয়েছিলেন।  
c) To qualify an Adjective like an Adverb: এগুলি Adverb এর মতো Adjective কে qualify করতে ব্যবহৃত হয়। Too/enough এর পর Infinitive ব্যবহৃত হয়।The book is nice to read. বইটি পড়তে বেশ ভালো লাগে। This picture is beautiful to look at. – ছবিটি দেখতে খুব ভালো লাগে। I am sorry to trouble you again. – তোমাকে আবার ঝামেলায় ফেলার জন্য ক্ষমা চাই। It is not easy to believe. – খুব সহজে এটা বিশ্বাস করা যায় না। She is too weak to walk. – হাঁটার পক্ষে সে অত্যন্ত দুর্বল। He is strong enough to carry the load. – বোঝাটি বইবার জন্য সে যথেষ্ট বলবান। These mangoes are good to eat. – এই আমগুলো খেতে ভালো।
d) To qualify a Sentence যেমন – ‘To speak’, ‘To tell’, ‘To quote’, ‘To be’ প্রভৃতি Infinitive Parenthetically বাক্যের মধ্যে ব্যবহৃত হয়। এদের সাথে মূল বাক্যের কোন সম্বন্ধ থাকে না।To tell the truth, you are a fool. – সত্যি বলতে কি – তুমি একটি মূর্খ। Tell you the fact, I do not believe Mira. – তোমায় সত্যি করে বলি – মীরাকে আমি বিশ্বাস করিনা। To be frank, I don’t like him. – অকপট বলি – তাকে আমি পছন্দ করি না। To quote the words of Keats, ‘Beauty is truth, the truth is beauty’. কীটস্-কে উদ্ধৃত করে বলি – সুন্দরই সত্য, সত্যই সুন্দর। To speak the truth’. – সত্যি বলতে কি – To be honest’. – সৎভাবে বলতে গেলে –   To be sure’. – নিশ্চিত হয়ে বলতে গেলে –  To be fair’. – ন্যায্য বলতে গেলে –
D. Verb এর Complement রূপে: Seem, Appear, Claim, Pretend  প্রভৃতি Intransitive Verb এর Complement রূপে Infinitive এর প্রয়োগ।
1. He seems to be rich.তাকে দেখে ধনী মনে হয়।He seems to have been rich once.তাকে দেখে মনে হয় একদা তিনি ধনী ছিলেন।
You appear to have suffered much in life.বোধ করি জীবনে তুমি প্রচুর ভুগেছো।I have no desire to be rich.আমার ধনী হবার কোনো বাসনা নেই।
He claimed to be an expert.নিজেকে তিনি একজন বিশেষজ্ঞ বলে দাবি করেছেন।He appeared to be lost.বোধ করি তিনি নিখোঁজ।
The train to be running late.ট্রেন সম্ভবত দেরি করে চলছে।She seems to be 25.তাকে দেখে মনে হয় তার বয়স ২৫ বছর।
He appears to be an wise man.  তাঁকে দেখে বিচক্ষণ ব্যক্তি বলে মনে হয়।  

E. Object এর Preposition রূপে: ‘About’’but’, ‘except’, ‘of’, ‘than’ প্রভৃতিPreposition এরপরInfinitive ব্যবাহৃতহয়।

He is about to die.সে প্রায় মরণাপন্ন।The manager is about to go.ম্যানেজার প্রস্থান করতে উদ্যত।
He was about to beat her.সে তাকে প্রায় মারতে যাচ্ছিল।I cannot go there.আমি সেখানে যেতে পারিনা।
John did nothing except cry.জন কান্নাকাটি ব্যতিত কিছুই করেনি।The rose was about to bloom but it did not.গোলাপটি প্রস্ফুটিত হতে গিয়েও হলো না।
The rain was about to set in but it did not.বৃষ্টি নামতে নামতে নামলো না।He was about to fall asleep.সে প্রায় ঘুমিয়ে পড়েছিল ।
You were about to catch the thief.তুমি চোরটাকে প্রায় ধরে ফেলেছিলে।I was about to call.আমি তোমাকে প্রায় ডাকতে যাচ্ছিলাম।
 She was about to go out.সে প্রায় বাইরে চলে যাচ্ছিল।You are about to reach the goal.তুমি তোমার লক্ষে প্রায় পৌঁছে গেছিলে।
I was about to win the race.আমি প্রায় প্রতিযোগিতা জিতে যাচ্ছিলাম।She was about to send you a letter.সে আপনাকে প্রায় একটি চিঠি পাঠাতে চেয়েছিল।

Instead of Relative Clause: য় হয় দদদহয়

The first, the last, the second, the only, the next প্রভৃতির পর Infinitive প্রয়োগ করা হয় Relative Clause (that, who etc) এর পরিবর্তে। Example: –  Bikram is the last boy to understand the trick. His office is the next room to clean. The second train to leave from Kolkata is the Rajdhani Express.

InfinitiveRelative Clause
They seem to be following us.It seems that they are following us.
She pretended to be looking smart.The pretended that she was looking smart.
It + linking verb + adjective + to infinitive.It is easy to say.
It is/was …. good/bad/easy/difficult/strange/safe/dangerous/ foolish/silly/simple/nice/right/possible/hard/wrong….It is difficult to describe the fact. It was impossible to solve. It is good to eat. It is simple to do.

Present Infinitive:

Finite Verb এর Tense টি Present, Past বা Future হতে পারে কিন্তু Present Infinitive টি নির্দেশ করে Finite Verb এর কাজ সম্পন্ন হওয়ার সাথে সাথে বা একটু পরেই সম্পন্ন হচ্ছে। The timing of the action is same or a little bit later.To hope is our resource. > আশা করা আমাদের একমাত্র সম্পদ। To flatter is not my custom. > চাটুকারিতা করা আমাদের রীতি নয়। To surrender seemed disgraceful. > আত্মসমর্পণ করা অবজ্ঞাপূর্ণ বলে মনে হয়েছিল। Mira likes to fly kites. > মীরা ঘুড়ি ওড়াতে ভালোবাসে। I will go to deposit money at the post office today. > আমি আজ পোষ্ট অফিসে টাকা জমা দিতে যাবো। I long to visit Agra. > আমি আগ্রা ভ্রমণ করতে আগ্রহী। To grant your request is a pleasure. > আপনার অনুরোধ মঞ্জুর করা একটা আনন্দ। She seems to be very optimistic. > তাকে দেখে আশাবাদি মনে হয়।

Perfect Infinitive: To + have + V3 হল Perfect Infinitive.

Finite Verb এর কাজটি সম্পন্ন হওয়া আগে বা পূর্বে Perfect Infinitive এর কাজটি সম্পন্ন হবে। Timing of the action is different. It indicates the action happened before Finite Verb মূলত hoped, wished, desired, longed প্রভৃতি Verb এর পর Perfect Participle ব্যবহৃত হলে বুঝতে হবে আশা পূর্ণ হয়নি বা ঘটনাটি বাস্তবে ঘটেনি। এছাড়াও Conditional Sentence এ should/would/might/ could এর পর Perfect Infinitive অবাস্তব বা ব্যর্থ কল্পনা বোঝাতে প্রয়োগ করা হয়। Unfulfilled/ Plan/ Arrangement/ Wish/ Possibility/ Obligation/Unreal situation প্রভৃতি বোঝাতে Perfect Infinitive এর প্রয়োগ Modal Verb এর সাহায্যে করা হয়। He pretended to have seen the film. > সে সিনেমাটি দেখার ভান করছিল। I am glad to have found a new job. > আমি একটি নতুন কাজ পেয়ে খুশি। She was sorry to have missed the train. > তিনি ট্রেনটি মিস করার জন্য দুঃখিত ছিলেন। You should have discussed the matter with me. > তোমার উচিত ছিল বিষয়টি নিয়ে আমার সাথে আলোচনা করা। They will have reached the station by now. > তারা এতক্ষণে স্টেশনে পৌঁছে যাবে। I wished to have gone to Delhi last month. > আমি গতমাসে দিল্লী যাওয়ার আশা করেছিলাম। He pretended not to have noticed me. > সে আমাকে না দেখার ভান করেছিল। She seems to have been very optimistic. > তাকে দেখে খুব আশাবাদী মনে হয়।
Infinitive after Be-verb and Have-verb: কোনো ব্যবস্থাপনা (Arrangement) বোঝাতে Be-verb এর পর Infinitive প্রয়োগ করতে হয় কিন্তু বাধ্যবাধকতা (Obligation) বোঝাতে Have-verb এর পর Infinitive প্রয়োগ করা হয়। অর্থাৎ Command বা Instruction অথবা Obligation এর জন্য Be-verb এবং Have-verb এর পর Infinitive প্রয়োগ করা হয়।I am to join office today. > আজ আমার কাজে যোগ দেওয়ার কথা আছে। She is to leave for London. > তার আজ লন্ডনে যাওয়ার কথা আছে। He was to have left for London. > তার গতকাল লন্ডন যাওয়ার কথা ছিল।  I have to leave the house within an hour. > আমার একঘন্টার মধ্যে বাড়ি ছাড়তে হবে। He had to spend much for medicine. > ঔষধের জন্য তাকে অনেক খরচ করতে হচ্ছিল। He is to do the work. >  তাকে কাজটি করতে হয়েছিল।   
Various InfinitiveExamples and forms
Present Infinitive: (To play, to write, to sing)I like to play football. – আমি ফুটবল খেলতে পছন্দ করি।  He looks to be wise. – তাঁকে দেখে বিচক্ষণ মনে হয়।
Present Continuous Infinitive: (To be playing, to be singing)You must be joking. – তুমি নিশ্চই পরিহাস করছো। You should be hurrying. – তোমার তাড়াতাড়ি করা উচিত।
Perfect Infinitive: (To have played, to have written)She claims to have met a number of famous people. – সে দাবি করে অসংখ্য বিখ্যাত মানুযের সান্নিধ্যে এসেছে।  You seem to have annoyed him. – সম্ভবত তুমি তাকে বিরক্ত করেছো। She seems to have finished the project. – মনে হয় তিনি প্রকল্পটি শেষ করেছেন।
Perfect Continuous Infinitive: (To have been playing, to have been singing)She pretended to have been reading. – সে ভান করেছিল যেন পড়ছে। The woman seemed to have been crying. – ভদ্রমহিলা মনে হয়েছিল কাঁদছেন।  He seemed to have been waiting for somebody. – তাঁকে দেখে মনে হয়েছিল কারুর জন্য অপেক্ষারত।
Present Infinitive (Passive): (To be played, to be worked)I was hoping to be elected as the president of India. – আমি আশা করেছিলাম ভারতবর্যের  রাষ্ট্রপতি মনোনিত হওয়ার। Every body needs to be loved.  – প্রত্যেকের ভালোবাসা পাওয়া দরকার।
Perfect Infinitive (Passive): (To have played, to have written)Mr. Rabi is considered to have been the best manager of the company. – মনে করা হয় রবিবাবু কোম্পানির সবচেয়ে ভালো ম্যানেজার। She seems to have been suffered much.  – তাকে দেখে মনে হয় প্রভূত কষ্ট পেয়েছেন।
Be-verb + Infinitive:(is to go, am to do, are to play, was to go, were to play.) I am to go to school.  আমার স্কুলে যেতে হবে।
Have-verb + Infinitive:(have to go, has to go, had to do.) She has to leave the office now. – তাকে এখুনি অফিস ত্যাগ করতে হবে।

Split Infinitive:

  • যখন to –এবং Main Verb –এর মাঝখানে কোনো Adverb ব্যবহার করা হয়, তখন তাকে Split Infinitive বলে। এটি Grammatically wrong.

I request you to kindly help them. (X)       অনুরূপভাবে, They requested me to do this quickly.

সঠিকহবে:              I request you kindly to help them.  ( )

  • একাধিক Infinitive ‘and’ দ্বারা যুক্ত করলে একবার মাত্র Infinitive ব্যবহৃত হয়, কিন্ত But ব্যবহার করলে প্রত্যেকবার Infinitive ব্যবহার করতে হয়।

I visited Kolkata to meet John and to buy some books. =  I visited Kolkata to meet John and buy some books. কিন্ত, I have nothing to do but to watch T.V.

নিম্নলিখিত Verb –এরপর Infinitive ‘to’ লুকিয়ে থাকে।

  • Modal Verbs & Verb of Senses: shall, should, will, would, can, could, may, might, must, dare not, need not-এবং see, hear, feel, smell, taste, make, let, bid, watch, help, know, behold, please প্রভৃতি।

1. I saw John play cricket. (to play হবে না) 2. They made me laugh.  (to laugh হবে না) 3. Let him go. (to go হবে না)           4. He bade me do it.  5. I can do this. (to do হবে না) অনুরূপভাবে, 6. John need not go there. 7. I must go now. 8. I help him carry it. 9. I can run very fast. 10. I saw  you go to school. 11. She noticed the boy climb the tree. 12. Let me say. 13. Why not ask your teacher for help. 14. I had better read this book. 15. She would rather do this.

  • Had better, had rather, had sooner, nothing but, cannot but, than, rather than, sooner than প্রভৃতি পর Infinitive এর  ‘to’ silent থাকে।

Ram had better go there. (to go হবে না)  অনুরূপভাবে, You had sooner go. You had rather remain here. Better reign in the hell than serve in heaven. He cannot but cry. She did nothing but shout. I would rather die than beg. He did nothing but sing. I cannot but go with you. She did everything except dance. Etc.

কিন্ত ‘let’ ছাড়া বাকি please, see, make, know, feel, hear, need, behind, watch, dare প্রভৃতি যদি Passive Voice –এ থাকে তাহলে ‘Infinitive to’ ব্যবহৃত হয়। যেমন- John was seen to come. They were heard to say so.  He was made to stand-up. কিন্ত He was let go.


Verb এর সহিত যখন ‘ing’ (ing-verb) যুক্ত থাকে এবং এটি যখন Noun রূপে  ব্যবহৃত হয় তখন তাকে Gerund বলে। ** A gerund is that form of the verb which ends in –ing and has the form of a noun and a verb. – Wren & Martin. আমরা জানি Continuous Tense –এ Verb –এর -ing রূপ ব্যবহৃত হয়। কিন্তু Continuous Tense –এ Be Verb + Verb-ing ব্যবহৃত হয়। যখন Be-verb ছাড়া Verb –ing রূপ কোনো Purpose কে নির্দেশ করে এবং Noun হিসেবে বাক্যের মধ্যে Subject, Object প্রভৃতি রূপে ব্যবহৃত হয় তখন তা Gerund হয়।

Gerund –এর ব্যবহার:

As a SubjectReading is relaxing. – পাঠ হল বিশ্রাম। Writing is an exchange of ideas. – লেখা এক প্রকার মত বিনিময়। Smoking is not healthy.  – ধূমপান স্বাস্থ্যকর নয়। Hunting tiger is dangerous. – বাঘ শিকার বিপজ্জনক। Brushing your teeth is important. দাঁত মাজা জরুরি।
As an ObjectI enjoy reading. – আমি পাঠ উপভোগ করি। Stop walking. – হাঁটা বন্ধ করো। I do not like smoking. – আমি ধূমপান পছন্দ করি না। Last week, I made studying my priority. – গত সপ্তাহে লেখাপড়াকে আমি অগ্রাধিকার দিয়েছিলাম।
As Complement of to be verbMy favourite hobby is reading.  পাঠ আমার পছন্দের সখ। Seeing is believing. দেখা মানেই বিশ্বাস করা। My only physical exercise is walking. – আমার একমাত্র শারীরিক ব্যায়াম হল হাঁটা। One of his duties is attending meeting. – তার বহু কর্তব্যর মধ্যে একটি হলো সভায় উপস্থিতি।  Her occupation is writing. – লেখা তার জীবিকা। His only focus is improving the lives of others. – তার একমাত্র লক্ষ্য অপরের জীবনকে উন্নত করা।  
As the object of a prepositionHe is fond of reading stories. – গল্পপাঠ তার পছন্দ। She is afraid of flying.  – উড়ানে তার ভীতি। I am tired of waiting.  – অপেক্ষা করতে করতে আমি ক্লান্ত। She is good at painting. – সে ছবি আঁকায় পারদর্শী। My love for reading was immediate. – পাঠের প্রতি আমার ভালোবাসা ছিলো তাৎক্ষণিক। I like the style of her reading. – তার পাঠের ধরণটা আমার ভালো লাগে। 
As possessive caseWe don’t mind your going there. – তোমার সেখানে যাওয়ার ক্ষেত্রে আমার কোনো আপত্তি নেই। Your English speaking is sound enough.  – তোমার ইংরেজি ভাষ্য বেশ গভীর।
Gerund after phrasal verbWhen will you give up smoking? ধূমপান তুমি কবে ছাড়বে? He kept on asking for money.  সে কেবলই টাকা চাইতো। She could not help falling in love with it. এটা ভালো না বেসে সে থাকতে পারে নি। I can’t stand being stuck in traffic jam. যানবাহনে আটকে যাওয়া আমি সহ্য করতে পারি না। No smoking. No parking. ধূমপান নিষেধ। গাড়ি রাখা নিষেধ।
Gerund after the expressionCan’t help. – অপারগ। Can’t stand.  – অসহ্য। I can’t help being amused by his silly jokes. > তার বোকাবোকা কৌতুকে আমোদিত না হয়ে পারলাম না।  

Gerund > Participle: আমরা জানি ing-verb টি Gerund ও Participle উভয় রূপে প্রয়োগ করা হয়। মনে রাখতে হবে, ing-verb টি Noun রূপে প্রয়োগ করলে Gerund হবে কিন্তু Adjective রূপে প্রয়োগ করলে Participle হবে। ing-verb টিকে For what দিয়ে Question করে যদি উত্তরটি কোন Purpose কে নির্দেশ করে তাহলে তা Gerund হবে, এবং যদি কোন situation কে নির্দেশ করে তাহলে তা Participle হবে।  Examples are given below: –

Gerund (It indicates purpose)Present Participle(It indicates situation)
A walking stick. – একটি ভ্রমণ যষ্টি।A walking man. ভ্রমণরত মানুষ।
A rolling machine. – একটি ঢ়ালাই যন্ত্র।A rolling stone. – ঘূর্ণায়মান পাথর।
Playing cards. – খেলার তাস।Playing boys. – খেলায় রত ছেলেরা।
Playing words. – শব্দ নিয়ে খেলা।Dying soldier. – মুমূর্ষু সৈনিক।
I like playing football.  – আমি ফুটবল খেলতে পছন্দ করি।Swimming is a good exercise. – সাঁতার একটি ভালো ব্যয়াম।
I saw him playing football. – আমি তাকে ফুটবল খেলতে দেখেছিলাম।  We found her swimming. – আমরা তাকে সাঁতারে রত দেখেছিলাম।
Reading book is fun. – বইপড়া এক মজারু।Look at the reading boy. – পাঠে রত ছেলেটিকে দেখো।

4. Preposition রূপে: Prevent, insist, inder, succeed, refrain, discourage, excel stop, go, keen, ashamed প্রভৃতি Verb এর পর বিশেষ বিশেষ Preposition ব্যবহার করে Gerund করতে হয়। উক্ত Verb গুলির পর Infinitive ব্যবহার করা যায় না।

We should refrain from doing evil.You should abstain from driking.
My friend excels in writing short stories.The servant was dismissed for committing theft.
She is keen on reading books.There is small advantage in moving fast.
I am tried of waiting for him.You should be punished for telling a lie.
He takes pride in doing this.I thought of going to the place.
Rahul is justified in doing this.Sumita is confident of winning
Deep is bent on establishing AIMS at Raiganj.I am aimed at becoming a good teacher.
In spite of warning he went on smoking.Rahul could not attend the meeting on account of his illness.
In additing to being a noted film-maker, he was a great actor.It is difficult not smoking for a day.
  • কিছু Verb বা Adjective অথবা Phrase এর সাথে ‘to’ যুক্ত থাকে। এদের ‘to’ এর পর ing-verb যুক্ত করা হয়। যেমন- used to, accustomed to, averse to, with a view to, devoted to, in addition to, look forward to, object to, owing to, giver to, taken to, prove to. যেমন- I am looking forward to meeting with you. He is proved to making the same mistake again and again.
  • তবে ‘used to’ এর পূর্বে যদি Main verb থাকে, তাহলেই ing-verb এর প্রয়োগ করা যায়, Past habit বোঝাতে Modal Auxiliary Verb রূপে প্রয়োগ করলে মূল Verb এর V1 রূপ ব্যবহার করতে হয়। যেমন- She got used to driving on the right when he was in London. I used to drive on the right. (Modal Verb) 


আমরা জানি, Continuous Tense এ মূল Verb এর সাথে ing যুক্ত থাকে এবং Perfect Tense ও Passive Voice এ Verb এর Past Participle (V3) রুপ বা form ব্যবহৃত হয়, কিন্তু Be-verb বা Have-verb ছাড়া Verb এর ing form বা V3 যখন বাক্যের মধ্যে Adjective রূপে প্রয়োগ করা হয় তখন সেই ing-verb বা V3 কে Participle বলা হয়। Participle –হল Verb –এর সেই রূপ যা গঠনের দিক থেকে Verb –এবং কার্যকারিতা রূপে Adjective অর্থাৎ Verb –এর বিশেষ রূপ যখন Adjective রূপে ব্যবহৃত হয়, তখন তাকে Participle বলা হয়। A word formed from a verb (writing, written, being, been) and used as an adjective is called Participle. Example: Working man, moving fan, running bus. Wounded man, burnt paper, defeated soldier etc.

Present Participle(V-ing as adjective)
Past Participle(V3 as adjective)
Perfect ParticipleHaving seen. (V3)Having been seen (V3)

Participle তিন প্রকার। যথা –

Continuous Tenseing-verb used as Adjective (Present Participle)Perfect Tense & Passive VoiceV3 used as Adjective (Past Partiiple)
The sun is rising. The house is burning. They are sleeping. I am sitting here.Look at the rising sun. They escape from the burning house. I love sleeping in the morning. The man sitting over there is my uncle. He has broken the glass. She was given a prize. My mother has boiled the milk.Do not touch the broken glass. Complete the given task. The fruit eaten by the children was contaminated.
ParticiplesDefinitionsKey notesExamples
Present Participle‘-ing-verb’ যখন Adjective এর মতো কাজ করে তখন তাকে Present Participle বলে। The form of a verb that usually ends in ing and is used as an adjective is Present Participle. Present Participle নির্দেশ করে কোনো কাজ বা ঘটনা চলছে বা ঘটছে, শেষ হয়নি। এটি ‘হওয়াতে’ বোঝাতে ব্যবহৃত হবে।  এটি একটি অবস্থাকে নির্দেশ বা বর্ণানা করে। Main verb এর সহিত ‘ing’ যুক্ত করে অথবা Be-verb (Linking verb) এর ক্ষেত্রে Being ব্যবহার করে Participle হিসাবে Non-finite করতে হয়। Both action happened at the same time. Example: -Breaking news/boiling milk/flying kite/sleeping man/setting sun/thrilling music/referssing weather/shocking news/moving fan/charming place/smiling face/crying babies.1. I do not get off from a running train. 2. It is a moving fan. (Train এবং Fan এর পূর্বে ‘running’ ও ‘moving’ Adjective রূপে ব্যবহৃত হয়েছে।) অনুরূপভাবে, The children playing in the field. The story was interesting. We enjoy the rising sun. She left the room opening. We herd someone singing. Leaving the store, he hailed a taxi. Wearing his new dress, Bikram went to the market. The girl, dreaming of being a doctor, decieded to teke an extra science class. Babies crying in the night brother me much.
Past ParticipleV3 যখন Adjective এর মতো কাজ করে তখন তাকে Past Participle বলে। The form of a verb that usually ends in –ed and is used as an adjective is called Past Participle. Past Participle নির্দেশ করে কোনো কাজ বা ঘটনা সম্পূর্ণ হয়ে গেছে এবং Verb এর সহিত –ed, -d, -t, -en, -n যুক্ত হয়ে গঠিত হয়। Broken plate/boild water/written file/ blessed man/wounded man/defeated soldiers/dejected boy/depressed man/escaped prisoner/coloured wall/wanted man/given task/confused girl/ frozen food.1. See the broken chair. 2. He is a retired teacher. (broken এবং retired: chair ও teacher এর পূর্বে Adjective রূপে ব্যবহৃত হয়েছে।) অনুরূপভাবে, He looked at washed car. Don’t purchase cut fruit. He is a learned man. I saw a wounded bird. Don’t drink water from a broken glass. The dejected boy committed suicide.
Perfect ParticiplePast Participle এর সঙ্গে Having যুক্ত হয়ে যদি এটি Verb Adjective এর কাজ করে, তাহলে এটিকে Perfect Participle বলে। The Perfect Participle is consisting of having or having been.It demonstrate an action was completed in the past. Perfect Participle দুই ভাবে গঠিত হয়। Active –এ = Having + V3/ Passive –এ = Having + been + V3. যেমন- Having finished/Having done/Having studied এবং Having been spoken/Having been arrived/Having been studiedHaving met with her friends, she shared her feelings. Having failed twice, he left study. Having delivered the message, she left immediately. The child having found its mother was again happy. Having finished the report I shall down the computer.

Present Participle: Last week I enjoyed an interesting film. Lets see the rising sun.

Rising sunউদীয়মান সূর্যMoving trainচলমান ট্রেনBlooming flowerফুটন্ত ফুল
Dying manমৃতপ্রায় মানুষSleeping watchmanঘুমন্ত প্রহরীPlaying boysক্রিড়ারত বালকেরা
Boring filmবিরক্তিকর সিনেমাExciting bookমজাদার বইWorking girlকর্মরত মেয়ৈ
Sinking boatডুবন্ত নৌকাLoving motherস্নেহশীলা মাBurning problemজ্বলন্ত সমস্যা
Flying kiteউড়ন্ত ঘুড়িSetting sunডুবন্ত সূর্যBreaking newsসদ্যপ্রাপ্ত খবর
Running trainচলন্ত ট্রেনLoving subjectভালোবাসার বিষয়Glowing marbleউজ্জ্বল মর্মর
Inspiring speechউদ্দীপক বক্তৃতাInteresting storyমজাদার গল্পConfusing situationবিভ্রান্তিকর পরিস্থিতি
Thrilling music রোমাঞ্চকর বাজনাTiring jobক্লান্তিকর কাজExciting tourউত্তেজনাপূর্ণ ভ্রমণ
Alarming noise ভীতিপ্রদ গোলমালShocking crime জঘন্য অপরাধRelaxing weatherনিরুদ্বেগ আবহাওয়া
Charming placeমুগ্ধকর স্থানExhausting workশ্রান্তিকর কাজEmbracing photoআলিঙ্গলবদ্ধ ছবি
Annoying talk বিরক্তিকর কথাDepressing weatherবিষন্ন আবহাওয়াTempting foodলোভনীয় খাবার

Past Participle : – V3 কোন  Noun এর পূর্বে বসে Adjective এর মত Noun কে Modify করে। তবে Past Participle কে বাক্যের মধ্যে অন্য স্থানেও প্রয়োগ করা যায়। যেমন- Last year I met a retired player.  Give me the folded paper.

Broken glassভাঙা কাঁচFallen leavesঝড়া পাতাDeserted houseপরিত্যক্ত বাড়ী
Retired teacherঅবসরপ্রাপ্ত শিক্ষকWritten massageলিখিত পরিক্ষাBoiled waterফুটন্ত জল
Dried leavesশুকনো পাতাDepressed womanবিষাদগ্রস্ত মহিলাDefeated soldierপরাজিত সৈনিক
Hidden treasureগুপ্তধনGiven taskকরণীয় কাজRotten appleপচা আলু
Dejected boyহতাশ বালকBygone daysবিগত দিনCherished wishলালিত অভিলাষ
Sunken shipনিমজ্জিত জাহাজBurnt houseপোড়া বাড়িForgotten matterবিস্মৃত বিষয়
Injured manআহত মানুষRuined cakeনষ্ট কেকColoured room রঙিন কামরা
Wanted playerআবশ্যিক খেলোয়াড়Folded pageভাঁজকরা কাগজCrowned princeসম্মানিত রাজপুত্র
Fatigued playerক্লান্ত খেলোয়াড়Blessed manআশীর্বাদ ধন্য মানুষWounded manআহত মানুষ
Buried treasureপ্রোথিত সম্পদObtained markপ্রাপ্ত নম্বরOverwhelmed boyঅভিভূত বালক

Being/ Getting respected- সম্মানিত হয়ে/ হওয়ায়/ হচ্ছে।

Being/ Getting established- প্রতিষ্ঠিত হয়ে/ হওয়ায়/ হচ্ছে।         Being/ Getting honest- সৎ হয়ে/ হওয়ায়/ হচ্ছে। Being/ Getting sure-নিশ্চিত হয়ে/ হওয়ায়/ হচ্ছে।                       Being/ Getting expert- দক্ষ হয়ে/ হওয়ায়/ হচ্ছে। Being/ Getting a doctor-ডাক্তার হয়ে/ হওয়ায়/ হচ্ছে।                 Being/Getting angry – ক্রব্ধ হয়ে/হওয়া/হচ্ছে।
S+Be-Verb+…….Adjective( Present Participle)S+Be-Verb+…….Adjective( Past Participle)
The little girl is very charming.She is excited.
The story is very interesting.They are now very tired.
That is very tiring work.The cup is broken.
The match was very exciting.She was worried.
She is a blooming student.Dr. Gupta is not retired.
It is a washing machine.He is blessed.
We are all living social animal.We were humiliated.
Walking stick, rising sun, blooming birds.He was healed.

** The use of Participles: Participles ব্যবহারের সময় নিচে দেওয়া key points গুলিকে মনে রাখতে হবে। প্রদত্ত বাক্যগুলি দেখে পর্যবেক্ষণ করতে হবে যে ; 1. Present Participle অথবা Past Participle এর প্রয়োগ:

A) দুটি বাক্যের Subject ও Tense একই থাকলে। B) Action Verb (যেমন- go, see, open) দিয়ে বাক্যটি গঠিত হলে। এবং

C) Verb টি Active voice এ থাকলে  Present Participle অথবা Perfect Participle এর প্রয়োগ করা যায়। কারণ- Present Perfect Participle এর Active form এ তেমন পার্থক্য নেই। তাই দুটির মধ্যে যেকোনো একটি আমরা ব্যববহার করে Joining করতে পারি। যেমন-

SplitingPresent Participle (Joining)Perfect Participle (Joining)
Sumita saw a snake. She ran away.Seeing a snake Sumita ran away.Having seen a snake Sumita ran away.
I will sing only two songs. I will leave the stage. Singing only two songs, I will leave the stage.Having sung only two songs, I left the stage.

* Perfect Participle Present Future Tense এর প্রয়োগ হয় না 

* তবে কাজটি একটু ব্যবধানে যদি ঘটে থাকে, অর্থাৎ তাড়াহুড়োর কোনো ব্যপার না থাকলে Perfect Participle ব্যবহার করা উচিত। যেমন-

Sachin scored a double century. He became tired.Having scored a double century Sachin became tired.
John failed twice. He decided to join his father’s business.Having failed twice, John decided to join his father’s business.

** 2. Being/Having-been + V3 এর প্রয়োগ:-

Participles ব্যবহারের সময় নিচে দেওয়া key points গুলিকে মনে রাখতে হবে। প্রদত্ত বাক্যগুলি দেখে পর্যবেক্ষণ করতে হবে যে; 

A) বাক্যটিতে Be-verb টি যদি Main verb রূপে ব্যবহৃত হয়ে থাকলে, অথবা  B) বাক্যটি যদি Passive হয়, তাহলে Being বা Having been + V3 ব্যবহার করতে হয়।

SplittingPresent Participle (Joining)Perfect Participle (Joining)
The man was killed. He fell down.Being killed, the man fell down.Having been killed the man fell down.

অনেক সময় Passive Voice অথবা Linking Verb যুক্ত বাক্যকে Present Participle, Perfect Participle  অথবা Past Participle প্রয়োগ করে Joining করা হয়। যেমন-  

SplittingPresent ParticiplePerfect ParticiplePast Participle
Sumita was beaten by John, she became sad.Being beaten by John, Sumita became sad.Having been beaten by John, Sumita became sad.Beaten by John, Sumita became sad.
He was tired. He took shelter under a tree.Being tired, he took shelter under a tree.Having been tired, he took shelter under a tree.Tired, he took shelter under a tree.

** 3. Sub. + having + V3 এর প্রয়োগ:- দুটি বাক্যের Subject যদি আলাদা থাকে (দুটিSubject থাকলে) প্রথমে যে কাজটি সম্পন্ন হচ্ছে তা লিখে নিয়ে + having + V3 + (,) তারপর পরে বাক্যটি লিখতে হয়। যেমন-

The sun rose. The fog dispersed.The sun having risen, the fog dispersed.
The player was injured, we took him to hospital.The player having been injured we took him to hospital.

Joining of Simple Sentence

A) By using Infinitive (to +V1):

a. John has an old car. b. He wishes to sell it.John has an old car to sell
a. Mira reads carefully. b. She wants to pass in the exam.Mira reads carefully to pass in the exam.
a. The man is very old. b. He cannot walk.The man is too old to walk.
a. I have some duties. b. I must perform them.I have some duties to perform.
a. Subhas Chandra liked to avoid detection. b. He was in disguise.Subhas Chandra was in disguise to avoid detection.
a. There is only one way. b. You can succeed byThere is only one way for you to succeed by.
a. John has purchased a novel of Sarat Chandra. b. He wants to read it during his railway journey.John has purchased a novel of Saratchandra to read during his railway journey.

B) By using Past Participle (V3): (Subject একই হবে)

a. We saw a man. b. He was wounded.We saw a wounded man.
a. John has a dog. b. He was well trained.John has a well trained dog.
a. I saw a soldier. b. He was defeated.I saw a defeated soldier.
a. This fruit is rotten. b. Throw it into the dustbin.Throw this rotten fruit into the dustbin.
a. John wrote a letter to me four days ago. b. I have receive it today.Today I have received the letter written by John four days ago.
a. The passengers were wounded in a bus accident. b. They have been sent to Raiganj District Hospital.The passengers wounded in a bus accident have been sent to Raiganj District Hospital.
a. King Ashoka was dressed in his royal robes. b. He was attended by his courtiers. c. He walked to the sea-shore. d. He took seat upon a chair. e. The chair was previously placed there for his reception. Dressed in his royal robes and seated upon the chair previously placed for his reception, king Ashoka walked to the sea-shore attend as by his courtiers.  

C) Participle (ing/being/having): (Subject একই হবে) (Being এর পর Adjective বা V3 ব্যবহৃত হয়)

a. The hunter saw a tiger. b. He ran away.Seeing a tiger, the hunter ran away.
a. John came home. b. He began to write.Coming home John began to write
a. Do not jump from a train. b. The train is running.Do not jump from a running train.
a. The old man was tired. b. He took rest under a tree.Being tired the old man took rest under a tree.
a. He was satisfied. b. He accepted the proposal.Being satisfied he accepted the proposal.
a. The players were playing in the field. b. We talked to them.We talked to the players playing in the field.
a. We did not know his intention.  b. We agreed to his proposal.Not knowing his intention, we agreed to his proposal.
a. I completed my home work. b. I sat for watching T.V.Having completed my home work I sat for watching T.V.
a. Kohli won the toss. b. He agreed to field first.Winning the toss, Kohli agreed to field first.
a. Dona was dancing on the stage. b. Mona saw it.Mona saw Dona dancing on the stage.

D) Perfect Participle: (দুটি বাক্যের Subject একই হবে): Active এর ক্ষেত্রে Having + V3 কিন্তু Passive Voice এর ক্ষেত্রে Having been + V3.

a. I wrote a poem. b. I gave it to the magazine. Having written a poem, I gave it to the magazine.
a. He finished his work. b. He went home. Having finished his work, he went home.
a. The lady was deceived by a company. b. She lodged a case.Having been deceived by a company, the lady lodged a case.

E) By using Nominative Absolute. (Subject আলাদা হবে): (Active Sub + having + V3 কিন্তু Passive Sub + Having + been + V3)

a. The sun rose. b. The fog disappeared.The sun having risen, the fog disappeared.
a. The police arrived. b. The mob dispersed.The police having arrived, the mob dispersed.
a. The agreement was signed. b. All were satisfied.The agreement having been signed, all were satisfied.
a. The army was withdrawn. b. The golden temple was again opened to public. c. A feeling of relief was among the people.The army having been withdrawn and the golden temple having been opened to public, there was a feeling of relief among the people.

F) By using preposition with a Noun or Gerund:

a. Mira heard the news of her father’s death. b. She fainted.On hearing the news of her father’s death Mira fainted.
a. John worked hard. b. He won the prize.John won the prize by dint of hard work.
a. Rabindranath was a great poet. b. He was a painter too.Besides being a great poet Rabindranath was a great painter.
a. He was ill. b. He could not attend the meeting.he could not attend the meeting on account of his illness.
a. He was ill. b. Still he continued his work.in spite of his  illness, he continued his work./In spite of being ill he continued his work. /Despite his illness he continued his work.

**Gerund –ব্যবহার করলে বাক্যের অর্থ বুঝে Preposition (on, with, by, at, besides-being, on account of, by dint of, in addition to being not withstanding) প্রভৃতি ব্যবহার করতে হয় তবে In spite of + noun বা In spite of + being + V3+ বা Despite + Noun ব্যবহৃত হয়। Despite –এরপর of দিলে ভুল হবে।

a. He takes exercise daily. b. He has improved his health.He has improved his health with daily exercise
a. It was extremely cold. b. The old man faintedThe old man fainted for extreme cold
a. They sing at station. b. They earn money.They earn money by singing at station.
a. I heard the news. b. I went to the hospital.On hearing the news, I went to the hospital.
a. Evening came. b. Our journey did not end.Notwithstanding the advent of evening our journey completed.
a. I warned him before. b. He went on smoking.In spite of my warning he went on smoking. /Despite my warming he went on smoking. /In spite of being warned he went on smoking

G) By using an Adverb or Adverbial Phrase:

এক্ষেত্রে মূল Verb টির অর্থ বুঝে Adverb –এ পরিণত করতে হয়। সাধারণত Adjective রূপের সহিত ly যুক্ত করলেই Adverb হয়। তাই Verb টির Adjective রূপটি মনে রাখতে হবে।

a. John will pass. b. There is no doubt about it.Undoubtedly John will pass.
a. Mira will come here . b. It is sure.Mira will surely come here.
a. Raju failed in the exam. b. It was unfortunateUnfortunately, Raju failed in the exam.
a. India won the match . b. They deserve itDeservingly, India won the match
a. Netaji  refused the proposal . b. He was bold to do soNetaji boldly refused the proposal
a. It was morning. b. He arrived here by Rajdhani.He arrived here in the morning by Rajdhani.
a. He described the fact . b. He did not fear at allHe described the fact without any fear.

H) By using an Adjective before a Noun: এক্ষেত্রে Descriptive Adjective টিকে Noun এর পূর্য়ে বসাতে হয়

a. My sister lost her watch . b. It was costlyMy sister lost her costly watch.
a. We saw a man by the sand bank . b. He was oldWe saw an old man by the sand bank.
a. Do not laugh at the man. b. He is lame.Do not laugh at the lame man.
a. I met a boy. b. He was blind.I met a blind boy.
a. He sold his mobile. b. It was new.He sold his new mobile.

I) By using a Noun /Phrase in Apposition: এক্ষেত্রে মূল Noun টির পরিচয় অন্য একটি বাক্যে অথবা সেই বাক্যেই Phrase আকারে দেওয়া থাকে; তাই পরের Phrase বা Noun Phrase গুলি ( যা Adjective –এর মতো থাকে) প্রথম Noun –এর পর, কমা (,) দিয়ে লিখতে হয় এবং একটি Finite Verb কে বিলোপ ঘটাতে হয়। এক্ষেত্রে Descriptive Word টিকে Noun এর পূর্বে প্রয়োগ করতে হয়।  

a. Harischandra was a great king. b. He was very kind-hearted.Harischandra, a great king was very kind-hearted
a. Tagore was a great poet. b. He won the Nobel Prize in 1913.Tagore , a great poet won the Nobel Prize in 1913.
a. This is my friend. b. Her name is Gita.This is my friend, Gita.
a. He is Tarunbabu. b. He is our English teacher.He is Tarunbabu ,our English teacher.
a. John is admired by everybody. b. He is a man of noble soul. c. He is sympathetic towards the poor. d. He is a fighter for their rights.John ,a man of noble soul, sympathetic towards the poor and a fighter for their rights is admired by everybody.


Combine the following sentences into a complex sentence with a noun clause. 1. He will fight to the finish. He says this. 2. She will win the first prize. It is certain. 3. He was innocent. He could not prove that. 4. The manager committed the blunder. It is evident. 5. He will return the money in a couple of days. This is his promise. 6. The patient will recover. This is the doctor’s assurance. 7. They saw the stranger. They say so. 8. Your claims for promotion will not be overlooked. Rest assured. 9. He has committed a mistake. It is obvious. 10. The exams may be postponed. The teacher says this.Noun clause…. 1. We have a plan. we would not disclose eat now. 2. Did you know the truth. The police wants to inquire it. 3. The teacher said something. It is true. 4. The monsoon will come soon. This is expected by all. 5. I will pass the exam. I am sure of it. 6. Tom said something. I do not believe in it. 7. She lost her parents of an early age. This was unfortunate. 8. Buddha mate with his disciples. This is the place. 9. We are ruined forever. This is the truth. 10. I have not executed my duty. The accusation is blesses.
Combine each of the following pairs of simple sentences into one complex sentence containing an adjective clause. 1. The theft was committed last night. The police has caught the man. 2. The French language is different from the Latin language. Latin was once spoken throughout Europe. 3. You are looking upset. Can you tell me the reason? 4. He had several plans for making money quickly. All of them have failed. 5. The landlord was proud of his strength. He despised the weakness of his tenants. 6. This is the village. I was born here. 7. You put the keys somewhere. Show me the place. 8. Paul was an old gentleman. He was my travelling companion. 9. A fox once met a crane. The fox had never seen a crane before. 10. The shop keeper keeps his money in a wooden case. This is the wooden case.Adjective Clause…. 1.I found some money. They were useless to me. 2. The girl lived in Landon. She was a student there. 3.you made a statement. It is wrong. 4.I have bought a horse. It will win the race. 5.Roma wants a pen. The pen must be made of UK. 6.This is the boy.I told him an interesting story. 7. My parents went to Tapur. It is a very beautiful city. 8. He is full of pride. He is sure to fall. 9. One does not believe a man. He cannot believe himself. 10. A man is dead. He tells no tale.
Combine each of the following pairs of simple sentences into one complex sentence containing an Adverbial Clause…. 1. You finish dressing. I will wait here. 2. There is heavy rainfall there. Grapes will not grow at such a place. 3. It may rain. Then the match will be cancelled. 4. He is not educated. He has practical knowledge. 5. I sank into the water. I felt great confusion of thought. 6.We watched the robins. They raised their young in our apple tree. 7.Becky read the book. It was recommended by a friend. 8.Dad donates his suits to charity. He has worn them a year. 9.The policemen delayed the drivers. The wrecks were cleared. 10.Ann ate an apple. She studied her vocabulary. 11.Frank started medical training. He drove a forklift for a living. 12.The rains had started the mud slides. The homes were not safe to live in. 13.Older people love to sit in the park. They feed the birds and visit. 14.I enjoyed camping out. I was much younger. 15.Joe recognised the man. The man had stopped his car to help. 16. The rain set in. We set out before that. 17. My friend may come today. I shall then visit the nearby park. 18.Listen to me. Else you will repent. 19.He is very obstinate. He would never listen to you. 20. I heard the news. I reported this immediately.Join the following sets of sentences into one simple sentence by using participle.   I knew that he was poor. I offered to pay his fare. (ii) I got no answer. I knocked a second time. (iii) He felt tired. He gave up work. (iv) The thief saw the police. He ran away. (v) The man found the door open. He entered into the cage. (vi) They found the treasure. They began quarreling. (vii) The fox saw a bunch of grapes. They were hanging over the wall. (viii) The hunter raised his gun. It shot the tiger. (ix) He went to Tamilnadu. His purpose was to visit Kannyakumari. (x) She was charmed with the offer. She at once agreed,
2.Join the following sets of sentences Into one simple sentence by using an Infinitive.      (1) He came out. He wanted to see what was happening. (ii) I speak the truth. I am not afraid of it. (iii) He wants to earn more. He wroks hard for it. 2.Join the following sets of sentences Into one simple sentence by using an Infinitive.      (1) He came out. He wanted to see what was happening. (ii) I speak the truth. I am not afraid of it. (iii) He wants to earn more. He wroks hard for it. (iv) He must apologise. He will not escape punishment. (v) The leader has some security staff. They guard him. (y I have some dues. I must pay them. Nii) He went to Mumbai. His purpose was to consult a doctor. (vii) I heard of his success. I was glad of it. (ix) He could not afford the tution fees. He was too poor. (x) The teachers held a meeting. They wanted to discuss about the matter. .3. Join the following sets of sentences Into one simple sentence by using nominative absolute.(i) The rain stopped. The flood situation improved. (ii) It was a very cold day. He did not come out of the room. (ii) The king died. His son ascended the throne. (iv) The party was over. The revellers prepared to go home. (v) The Manager was absent. The workers were in a holiday mood. (Vi) This year the train is insufficinet. The crop will not grow well. (vii) His house was burnt. He used to live in a hotel. (viii) His father was dead. He had to look after the family. (ix) The wind failed. The boat lost its speed. (x) The situation worsened . People fled from their house.
4. Join the following sets of sentences into one simple sentence by using a noun or a phrase in apposition. (1) Satyajit Ray died in 1994. He was a great filmmaker. (ii) Nurul Hasan was the governor of West Bengal. He was a noted historian. (iii) We saw the picture. It is a masterpiece of art. (iv) They went to Kashmir. The valley is known as heaven on earth. (v) Owen died young. He was a poet of great promise. (vi) His brother is y an engineer. He lived in America. (vii) Rana Pratap loved Chaitak. It was his faithful horse. (viii) Chandigar is a fine city. It was designed by De Corbusier. (ix) The police arrested the man. He was a notorious extremist. (x) Kolkata is called the city of Joy. Many tourists visit this city.5. Join each of sentences into a single simple sentence by using preposition with a noun or gerund. (i) He exercises daily. He has, improved his health. (ii) 1t was extremely but. The woman fainted. (i) Evening came. Our journey did not end. (iv) The man was cruel. I took no notice of it (v) He has good looks. But he cannot prosper in film. (vi) I went through the document. I found many faults in it. (vii) Satyajit Roy was a noted film maker. He was also a famous illustrator. (vii) He behaved rudely. I was shocked at this. (ix) They saw a khaki-clad man. He had a gun in his hand. (x) My teacher helped me. Otherwise I could bot have completed by education.
6 Join each set of sentences into a single simple sentence by using adverbs or adverbials. (i) The boy answered my question. His answer was correct. (if) He will accept the offer. It is certain. (i) It is unfortunate. Her husband died in the battlefield. (iv) I shall come back. I shall not be long. (v) He escaped the accident, It was lucky on his part. (vi) The train is very late. That is usual. (vii) He solved the problem Its solution took him no time. (viii) Uncle Podger forgot his newspaper. It was careless on his part. (ix) The country is developing. The pace is very slow. (x) He kicked the referee. He did so without intention.
1) We came near a cottage .A man was living there with his family. 2)  A man came here from a village. I know the village. 3) A man came here from a village. I know him. 4) A man came from a village. Do you know him? 5) He is not rich. He is hard working.  6) He is careless. He has lost his book.  7) I was nine. I was sent to a high school 8) The man is very old. He cannot come here 9) I saw Mihir yesterday. He was going to school 10) I don’t know him. He is a newcomer here 11) Pesticide substance. It used to kill insects 12) The boy has own the price. The boy lives next door. 13) The tree has fallen down. It will die. 14) Jack build house. This is the house. 15) He had a car. He wanted to sell it 16) Mr.Sen is an honest man. Everybody and admits it. 17) He is ill. It is known to me. 18) He was absent. He explained the reason. 19) The man caught the thief. He was rewarded for his courage. 20) It may rain. She may not go out then. 21) Other children could speak. Helen knows it. 22) Yoga is a good exercise. Everybody should learn it 23) This is the boy. He stole my watch.  24) He is poor. He is happy. 25) He was sick. He remained in bed.26) Work hard. You will pass. 27) He was sick. He didn’t go to school. 28) The roses are not for sale.These roses grow in our Garden. 29) Orpheus had a wife. She was a beautiful woman. 30) The sun is the source of heat and light. It is far away. 31) He is educated. He is superstitious. 32) He heard the news. He at once went to the hospital. 33) The boy shows a horse. It was galloping. 34) The boy came to me.He was a cheat. 35) Rabindranath was a great poet.He composed Gitanjali. 36) My friend gives me a book. It was written by Banaphul. 37) He lives somewhere. I don’t know. 38) Everybody has deep respect for the men. He is perfectly honest. 39)  He may by powerful. I am not afraid of him. 40) A lady wrote a book. She is coming to dinner. 41) Malay is a very rich country.It exports rubber and tin. 42) I visited the place. Nazrul was born there.  43) A boy may innocent. I don’t know. 44) A boy helps me to cross the road. I don’t cross him. 45) Carry out his orders. He will be angry with you. 46) A biologist is a scientist. He is studies the plants and trees. 47) I like to have the dictionary. The dictionary has a red jacket. 48) We are strangers here. We seek your protection. 49) The book is very useful. Amit bought the book the day before. 50) I went there. I found the door locked.
III) Use ‘In spite of’: 1) Though he is intelligent he is not fit for the job.    2) Though he came late to school he was not punished. 3) You helped him, still he did not pass.  4) He had scarce resources; still he persisted in his struggle against the Moghals. 5) Although Chinese furniture looks stylish ,it is not very durable.
A.Combine each of the following pairs of sentences using a participle : 1. She felt hungry. She went on eating. 2. They finished their breakfast. They boarded the school-bus. 3. The sun had set. We returned home. 4. I do not like this child. He weeps bitterly. 5. I saw a woman. She was crossing the road. 6. I found my brother. He was drinking. 7. It was cloudy. We did not venture out. 8. I threw the pen. It was broken. 9. The traveller lay under a shady tree. He was tired. 10. He won a lottery. He bought a car. 11. The marriage has been fixed. No change is possible now.Combine each of the following sets of Simple Sentences into a Simple Sentence by using an Adverb or Adverbial Phrase : 1. The rose has thorns. It is certain. 2. Great people serve their country. Their service is selfless. 3. He went to market. He was in a hurry. 4. I shall return by the morning. I am definite about it. 5. I thanked him. I did it with all my heart. 6. The river was flowing. It’s flow was slow. 7. He did it. He did it with a great success. 8. He spent all his money.  This was foolish. 9. She will pass the examination. It is certain.  
Combine each of the following pairs of sentences using either a Present Participle or a Perfect Participle : 1. I had finished my work. I went out to play. 2. I spoke to a gentleman. He was standing near the window. 3. Arjuna pulled the string. He shot an arrow. 4. She heard the news. She burst into tears. 5. He left the bicycle at the gate. He entered the house. 6. She felt for the poor man. She gave him some money. 7. I had reached the railway station. I bought a ticket for Agra. 8. He handed over the answer-book to the supervisor. He came out.Combine each of the following pairs, of sentences, using participles : 1. He took a bath. He sang a song. 2. I took off my clothes. I called my mother. 3. My friend opened the drawer. He took out his purse. 4. He fell down. He struck his head against the door. 5. I read the notice. I went to the Principal. 6. He was warned by me. He did not go out. 7. The girl entered the room. She was wearing a gown. 8. He failed twice. He did not want to appear again. 9. He fired. He killed two men. 10. The thief stole the money. He escaped in the dark.  
Combine each pair of sentences into one simple sentence by using participles. 1. He hurt his leg. He stopped walking. 2. He was unwilling to make another attempt. He decided to quit. 3. The Emperor was warned of the impeding disaster. He made good his escape. 4. He lost a large amount of money. He gave up gambling. 5. I received no reply. I sent another letter. 6. He wife encouraged him. He persevered. 7. He was tired. He sat down to rest. 8. The magician took pity on the mouse. He turned it into a cat. 9. The passenger alighted from the train. He tripped over a bag. 10. The hungry fox saw a bunch of grapes. It was hanging from a vine. 11. She was stricken with grief. She killed herself. 12. They were driven by the rain. They took shelter under a tree.Combine the following pairs of sentences by making use of Participle: 1.They started early. They arrived at noon. 2.I met a boy. He was carrying a bag. 3.The stable door was open. The cow was stolen. 4.She seized her stick. She rushed to the door. 5.Cinderella hurried away with much haste. She dropped one of her little glass slippers. 6.The hunter took up his gun. He went out to shoot the lion. 7.A crow stole a piece of bread. He flew to his nest to enjoy the tasty meal. 8.The porter opened the gate. We entered. 9.A passenger alighted from the train. He fell over a box on the platform. 10.Nanak met his brother in the street. He asked him where he was going. 11. My mother was charmed with the silk. She bought five yards. 12.She staggered back. She sank to the ground.                        
Combine the following pairs of sentences using infinitives. 1. He did not have even a penny with him. He could not buy a piece of bread. 2. The team has a captain. He leads other team members. 3. You must give me the keys of the safe. If you do that you will be able to save your life. 4. We went to Ajmer last week. Our intention was to visit the shrine of Khwaja Pir. 5. I speak the truth. I am not afraid of it. 6. The robber took out his knife. His intention was to frighten the traveler. 7. He has to support his family. He works hard for that reason. 8. The management called a meeting of the employees. They wanted to discuss their requirements. 9. He helps the poor. He is anxious to relieve them of their offerings. 10. I have no interest in politics. I must admit it frankly.  Combine each of the following Simple Sentences into one Simple Sentence by using an Infinitive : 1. I had no money. I could not give any body. 2. He has three sons. He has to educate them . 3. He is very weak. He can not run. 4. Man works day and night. He has to support his family. 5. Neeta is very poor. She can not carry on her studies. 6. Hari remained very serious in his studies right from the very beginning of the session. He wanted to top the Board’s Examination. 7. He has three daughters. He has to get them married. 8. Give him a chair. He will sit on it. 9. He is very fat. He can not run fast. 10. Hari went to Agra. He wanted to see the Taj. 11. She will go to Kanpur. She will see her father. 12. My uncle is quite weak. He can not go for a morning walk. 13. She went to Dehradun.She went there to see her sister. 14. I went to station. My object was to see off my sister .

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